Journal of Agriculture and Ecology <p>The ‘Journal of Agriculture and Ecology' is an online platform for the advancement and rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge generated by the highly motivated researchers in the field of agriculture, ecology and allied fields.<br><br><strong>Journal's DOI:</strong> <a title="JAE DOI" href=""></a><br> <strong>ISSN: 2456-9410</strong> <br> <strong>NAAS Score/Rating: 4.36</strong></p> en-US (Dr. Shravan M. Haldhar) (Webmaster) Wed, 23 Aug 2023 22:08:16 +0530 OJS 60 Plant-insect interaction in underutilized horticultural crops for sustainable production <p>Plants and insects have been living together for more than 350 million years. In co-evolution, both have evolved strategies to avoid each other’s defense systems. This evolutionary arms race between plants and insects has resulted in the development of an elegant defense system in plants that can recognise the non-self-molecules or signals from damaged cells, much like animals. It activates the plant’s immune response against the herbivores. Differences in genotypes of plant characters may affect insect-plant herbivore interactions, and variations in genotype traits are responsible for modifying the bottom-up effects. Recent evidence shows that the simultaneous occurrence of abiotic and biotic stress can positively affect plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress, a positive sign for pest management. Plant responses to these stresses are multifaceted and involve copious antibiosis, physiological, antixenotic, molecular, molecular and cellular adaptations. Plants with antibiosis characteristics such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, etc., may cause reduced insect survival, prolonged development time, decreased size and reduced new generation fitness. Quality and quantity of constitutive secondary metabolites production is species as well as cultivar specific and can be expressed as the signature of a particular plant or species and leads to the phenomenon of host-plant resistance. Hence, such plant resistance mechanisms have been effectively and widely used for managing insect pests in fields of underutilized crops. Natural defences are mediated through plant characteristics that affect insect biology, such as mechanical protection on the surface of the plants (<em>e.g</em>., hairs, trichomes, thorns, spines and thicker leaves) that either kill or retard the development of the herbivores. These phenomena of host plant resistance to insects can be exploited for the development of resistance crop cultivars which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation and can perform as one of the integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.</p> SM Haldhar, B Sinha, BR Choudhary, D Singh, J Konsam, N Thaochan Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 06 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Microbiological resources- an alternate approach for sustainable management of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) <p>Fall Army Worm (<em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em>), with the traits of devastating, voracious, polyphagous nature had recently imposed a global threat. Possessing these traits, this pest constituted a threat to global food security by ambushing more than several host plant species. To tackle this pest, insecticide management approaches was used initially. Later, with a better comprehension of the dynamic biology of the pest, such as their long migration capability, their ability to develop resistance against insecticide and the adverse effects of pesticides on human and the environment, an alternative strategy which is environmentally safe <em>i.e., </em>biological control approaches that is effective and low-risk is laid emphasis. A rich diversity of microbial populations which have the ability to infect the pest to a certain degree in nature remains untapped, and if so, identification of high virulence and productive strains within the population is lacking hitherto. This review focused on the information regarding the scenario of the occurring pest and its damaging nature to the host plants and microbial agents with their surplus potentialities along with the mode of interactions with the insect pest and self-perpetuating nature and their boon of disarming nature. The details of each microbe <em>viz.,</em> fungi, bacteria and viruses that possess the traits of controlling the pest naturally are briefed with an insight into molecular information, present findings, constraint and future prospects.</p> B Sinha, SM Haldhar, K Chakrapani, CN Nidhi, Z Ralte, B Wangkhem, J Konsam Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 06 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 A comprehensive analysis of biomass energy in India for agricultural and domestic use <p>Biomass is an abundant and renewable resource in India, with vast potential for use in energy production, agricultural applications, and waste management. The country has made significant strides in developing and utilizing biomass resources for various purposes in recent years. One of the primary uses of biomass in India is for energy production. Biomass fuels, such as wood chips, agricultural residues, and municipal waste, are used in rural areas for cooking and heating. Additionally, the government has implemented policies and initiatives to promote the use of biomass for electricity generation. Biomass-based power plants have been established nationwide, with a total installed capacity of over 9,000 MW. Biomass is also used in agricultural applications in India. The country is a major producer of sugarcane, and bagasse, a byproduct of sugarcane processing, is commonly used as a feedstock for producing biofuels and biogas. Additionally, farmers are increasingly using biomass-based fertilizers and pesticides to improve soil health and reduce chemical inputs. Regarding waste management, biomass is a valuable resource for converting organic waste into useful products. Anaerobic digestion and composting are popular methods for treating organic waste, with the resulting biogas and compost being used for energy generation and agricultural applications, respectively. Overall, biomass is an essential resource for India, providing energy, supporting agriculture, and promoting sustainable waste management practices. With continued investment and innovation, biomass has the potential to play an even more significant role in the country's energy and agricultural sectors in the coming year.</p> A Prakash, K Lal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Thu, 24 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Assessing the mercury removal efficiency of natural adsorbents from wastewater <p>Organic waste materials <em>viz</em>., coir pith, rice husk, and water hyacinth were studied in the batch experiments to evaluate their potential for mercury removal from wastewater. Five pH (4,5,6,7,8) and five different contact times (1,2,4,6,8 hours) were studied with a constant mercury concentration of 0.1 ppm. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were used for characterizing the biochars <em>i.e.</em>, rice husk biochar (RHBC), coir pith biochar (CPBC) and water hyacinth biochar (WHBC), used for the experiment before and after adsorption studies. Adsorption capacities of each different biochar used for the experiment varied due to their wide range of surface area as well as different shift patterns in the FTIR. Based on the experimental results, among the three adsorbents used for mercury removal from wastewater, coirpith biochar (CPBC) has a maximum removal efficiency of 46.2% followed by rice husk biochar (RHBC–44.8%) and water hyacinth biochar (45.6%) with 6 hours of contact time.</p> K Suganya, R Sunitha, M Maheswari, R Rizam, E Parameswari Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 24 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Identification of spoilage yeasts in cashew apple (Annacardium occidentale L.) using MALDI-TOF MS <p>Cashew (<em>Annacardium occidentale</em> L.) is a hardy and golden crop of arid regions, and the pseudo fruit, cashew apple is a vital source of sugars and vitamins that is discarded as a waste during cashew nut processing. Cashew apples start fermenting soon after the harvest, and due to the presence of a wide spectrum of polyphenols and tannins, the change of colour of cashew apples leads to an unappealing marketability and storage stability. The present study is aimed to rapid identification of different spoilage yeasts and to identify them using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy. Spoilage yeasts like <em>Candida krusei, C. tropicalis, Pichia </em><em>norvegensis, Brettannomyces bruxellensis </em>were the spoilage yeasts found to have high confidence score values of 2.00 - 3.00 with high consistency.</p> G Gayathry, P Maheshwari, R Arthee, Asangeetha, Kjothilakshmi Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 24 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Performance evaluation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth, yield and quality under subtropical climate <p>Lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa</em> L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae and is known as a leafy salad vegetable. It is rich in vitamins like Vitamin A and C, and also a good source of minerals such as iron, sodium, calcium <em>etc</em>. It is more popular in temperate regions and also performing well under subtropical climatic conditions during the winter season. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to identify the suitable variety of lettuce for higher yield and quality under subtropical climate. The experiment was conducted with five treatments replicated thrice. Seeds of these five lettuce varieties viz., Tango, Bingo, Summer Star, Grand Rapid and Black Rose were sown in portrays prefilled with a combination of media made of coco peat, vermiculite and perlite in the ratio 3:1:1. After thirty days plants were plugged out and transplanted under field condition to study the performance of lettuce varieties. Among the studied varieties, the maximum yield (191.44 q/ha) was recorded with the variety Summer Star which was at par (190.32 q/ha) with the Bingo variety, followed by (129.50 q/ha) in Tango and the least (85.51 q/ha) by Black Rose. However, vitamin C content and total carotenoid content were significantly found highest (15.98 mg/ 100 g) and 8.06 mg/ 100 g in the Black Rose variety, respectively. Tango variety observed maximum chlorophyll ‘a’ (5.85 mg/ g FW), ‘b’ (2.01 mg/ g FW) and total chlorophyll (7.85 mg/ g FW) content among studied lettuce varieties.</p> A Sahil, SR Singh, K Kumar, J N Tiwari, N Mukesh Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Bio-efficacy of newer insecticides and bio-pesticides against termite on chickpea in arid region of Rajasthan <p>The seed treatment, as well as soil application of imidacloprid 600 FS @ 5 ml/kg + <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> 1.15 WP @ 2 kg /ha, was found most effective against termite (9.34% plant damage) after 110 days of crop sowing, followed by fipronil 5 SC @ 5 ml/ kg + <em>Metarrihizium anisopliae </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg/ha (10%) and clothianidin 50 WDG @ 2 g/ kg + <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg /ha (10.62%). The treatments alone seed treatment of imidacloprid 600 FS @ 5 ml/ kg seed (11.56%) followed by fipronil 5 SC @ 5 ml/ kg seed (12.03%) and clothianidin 50 WDG @ 2 g/ kg seed (12.65%) were found moderately effective while, bio-pesticides <em>viz., Metarrihizium anisopliae </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg/ha and <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg /ha with 15.78 and 15.47 per cent plant damage were found least effective for controlling the termite population. The maximum yield was obtained in imidacloprid 600 FS + <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>1.15 WP (18.70 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by fipronil 5 SC + <em>Metarrihizium anisopliae </em>1.15 WP (18.20 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and clothianidin 50 WDG + <em>Beauveria bassiana</em>1.15 WP (18.00 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively.</p> Shivani Choudhary, MK Gurjar, HL Deshwal, BL Jat Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of nano nitrogen and phosphorus on growth, yield and quality of ber, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam <p>An experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Mandor, Jodhpur (Raj.) to find out the effects of nano nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of ber using Factorial Randomized Block Design with 5 replications from October 2021 to March 2022. The result showed that the maximum rise (6.45 %) in plant height (79.17 cm), number of primary branches (14.72), secondary branches (22.09), chlorophyll contents (55.34 SPAD value), fruit volume (20.63cm<sup>3</sup>), specific gravity (0.95), fruit length at harvest (3.42 cm), fruit diameter at harvest (3.16 cm), pulp thickness (12.56 mm), pulp weight (15.79 g), pulp: stone ratio (19.20), fruit setting (6.92 %), average fruit weight (18.00 g), yield/ tree (64.57 kg), ascorbic acid (65.75 mg/100g pulp), total soluble solid (15.77°Brix), total sugar (9.20 %), reducing sugar (4.83 %), non-reducing sugar (4.37 %), fruit pH (5.50) whereas minimum stone weight (0.82 g) and fruit drop (49.38 %) was recorded with the application of nano nitrogen @ 2 ml/ litter water +&nbsp; nano phosphorus @ 2 ml/ litter water spray over the control.</p> SM Meena, RL Bhardwaj, K Pushpa, L Kumar, S Poonia, R Kuri Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0530