Journal of Agriculture and Ecology https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae <p>The ‘Journal of Agriculture and Ecology' is an online platform for the advancement and rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge generated by the highly motivated researchers in the field of agriculture, ecology and allied fields.<br><br><strong>Journal's DOI:</strong> <a title="JAE DOI" href="http://doi.org/10.53911/JAE">http://doi.org/10.53911/JAE</a><br> <strong>ISSN: 2456-9410</strong> <br> <strong>NAAS Score/Rating: 4.36</strong></p> en-US saaerjae2016@gmail.com (Dr. Shravan M. Haldhar) webmaster@saaer.org.in (Webmaster) Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Cover https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/506 Nabahat K Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/506 Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Masthead https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/507 Nabahat K Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Ecology https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/507 Thu, 20 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Natural farming https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/491 <p>Due to the increasing global population, advancement in farming techniques to meet the global food demand is the need of the hour. Conventional farming techniques have increased the yield over the past few decades, but those techniques also have adverse effects on natural resources. In this scenario, many other alternatives have emerged as a solution, natural farming being one among them. The presented article delivers crucial information regarding the targeted farming technique i.e., natural farming. Multiple scientifically-proven natural techniques and ecological approaches are discussed for different aspects of farming. In addition, criticisms related to Natural Farming are illustrated along with a basic introduction to zero budget natural farming (ZBNF). Furthermore, the article describes multiple proven technologies for weed, pest and disease management approaches through natural practices. Lastly, the article gives recommendations on implementing and introducing natural farming to the farming community.</p> RS Bana, Rakesh Dawar, SM Haldhar, Samarth Godara, Arjun Singh, SD Bamboriya, Vipin Kumar, AK Mishra, Manoj Choudhary Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/491 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Microplastics: Devastation and destination in aquatic ecosystem https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/494 <p>Plastic pollution is a major global issue due to its non-biodegradability and persistence in nature. Plastics take thousands of years to degrade and can be converted into microplastics which are very harmful to all living biota due to their extensively small size (≤ 0.5 mm). Even though microplastics are not completely separated during wastewater treatment in plants (WWTPs). MPs are converted from highly stable and different kinds of polymers like polystyrene, polyethylene, etc., and radically distributed across the globe including the Arctic and Polar regions which fascinate scientists and researchers in addressing the issue. Due to the microscopic dimension of plastics, MPs has been entering through various pathways into the food webs of various aquatic fauna and indirectly or directly affecting the ecosystem including human health. Therefore, MPs are an inevitable and emerging threat especially for the aquatic ecosystems. This review discusses briefly the types, sources, chemical properties, and effects of MPs on aquatic biota.</p> Shanta Kumari, Chetan Chauhan Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/494 Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effectiveness of botanicals, inorganic salts and fungicide against Fusarium wilt of muskmelon under hot arid region of Rajasthan https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/495 <p>Investigation was undertaken to screen out the extract of botanicals viz., Neem leaf, Tumba fruit, NSKE and Aak leaf and inorganic salts against Fusarium wilt of muskmelon. This disease caused by Fusarium acuminatum is a major fungal disease causing serious losses to muskmelon growing areas in Rajasthan. The field trials were carried out on muskmelon susceptible variety ‘RM-50’ against Fusarium wilt during summer season of 2019 and 2020 at this Institute. Among 11 treatments, carbendazim (0.1%) was found the most effective treatment for management of Fusarium wilt with minimum disease incidence (PDI) of 15.83% and 60.84% disease reduction, followed by neem leaf extract @ 10% with disease incidence of 21.89% and 45.84% disease reduction. Maximum disease incidence (40.42% PDI) was found in case of control.</p> SK Maheshwari, BR Choudhary, SM Haldhar, MK Berwal Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/495 Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effects of phosphorus application on bunch and spreading genotypes of groundnut https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/496 <p>Farm of Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar, Afghanistan to find out most suitable groundnut variety and their phosphorus levels in the study region. The treatments combination was of two groundnut varieties (Kormaki and Paparri) and four levels of phosphorus as P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (P<sub>0</sub>= 0 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>, P<sub>1</sub>=40 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>, P<sub>2</sub>= 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> and P<sub>3</sub>= 80 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>), were tested in a split plot design. Result revealed that Paparri variety produced significantly higher growth attributes (plant height, dry matter accumulation and number of main branches plant<sup>-1</sup>) and yield attributes (number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, pods dry weight plant<sup>-1</sup>, 100 kernel weight and shelling percentage) over Kormaki variety. Likwise, paparri variety produced significantly higher pods yield, kernel yield, haulm yield and biological yield over kormaki variety. In the like manner, significantly higher gross return, net return and benefit cost ratio was recorded from Paparri variety, whereas residual nitrogen was found significantly higher in kormaki variety. Among phosphorus levels, 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> recorded higher values for growth parameters, yield attributes viz. number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, pods weight plant<sup>-1</sup>, 100 kernel weight and shelling percentage, and yields (including pods yield, kernel yield, haulm yield and biological yield).</p> Rahmatullah Nazir, Sayed Ahmad Sayedi, Khalilullah Zaryal, Khalilullah Khaleeq, Samarth Godara, Shanti D. Bamboriya, R.S. Bana Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/496 Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Bio-efficacy of new fungicide, Tebuconazole- 430SC against coffee leaf rust disease, Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Broome https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/497 <p>Coffee is an important plantation crop cultivated worldwide and used as stimulating drink. Coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease is one of the devastating disease affecting foliage of Coffee, limiting Coffee production worldwide. It is caused by an obligate parasite <em>Hemileia vastatrix</em>, which reduce photosynthetic area in turn results in heavy defoliation and die-back of branches. In India CLR management is accomplished with one contact fungicide spray (Bordeaux mixture @ 0.5%) and effective systemic fungicide spray during pre and post monsoon periods respectively. However, to find an alternative to the recommended fungicide the studies were conducted to know the efficacy of new fungicide Tebuconazole 430 SC against CLR. The results revealed that, in the laboratory conditions, complete inhibition of the uredospore germination was observed in Tebuconazole 430 SC @ 0.5 ml/L and 0.75 ml/L and Hexaconazole 5 EC @ 2 ml/L. However, in lower concentration Tebuconazole 430 SC @0.25 ml/L there was 98.97 per cent inhibition and in Copper Oxychloride 50 WP @ 5.5 g/L 87.49 per cent inhibition was observed over control. Field trials indicated that, at all the locations, Tebuconazole 430SC @ 0.75ml/L was found very effective which recorded maximum disease reduction followed by Tebuconazole 430SC @ 0.5ml/L which was found on-par with the currently recommended fungicide Hexaconazole 5 EC @ 2 ml/L and minimum disease reduction was observed in Copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 5.5g/L.</p> AP Ranjini, MS Giri, S Machenahalli, M Sudha, S Daivasikamani Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/497 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Bio-efficacy of ground plant powders on the population of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in stored green gram https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/498 <p><em>Tribolium castaneum</em> (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is one of the major insect pests of stored grains. Experiment was conducted for studying the efficiency of ground plant materials for management of <em>T. castaneum </em>in stored green gram and effect of plant powders on seed germination in laboratory of Department of Entomology, CoA, CAU, Imphal during the period 2021-2022. Studies on effect of plant powders on management of <em>T. castaneum</em> revealed that Black pepper @ 1.5g/kg seed shows maximum mean adult mortality of 100.00 per cent and Sweet flag @ 1.5g/kg seed shows lowest mean adult mortality of 33.33 per cent. Highest seed damage was recorded in Sweet flag @ 1.5g/kg seed (8.00 per cent) and least was in Black pepper @ 1.5g/kg seed (1.67 per cent). Maximum adult emergence was noted in treatment of Sweet flag @ 1.5g/kg seed (8.00 per cent) and lowest was in China berry @ 1.5g/kg seed (1.33 per cent). Evaluation of germination percentage reveals that minimum germination percentage was recorded in Black pepper @ 1.5g/kg seed (91.33 per cent) and maximum was in Indian wormwood @ 1.5g/kg seed (98.67 per cent) but none of the treatment recorded the percentage below the prescribed germination percentage of green gram. Plant powders offers efficient control of red flour beetle and these are available locally and did not show any adverse on the environment and hence can be recommended as alternatives to the chemical insecticides.</p> B Ushasri, KI Singh, SM Haldhar, TB Devi, Lakshmi Jidung, R Gokulnath, LNK Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/498 Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Survey of insect-pests of citrus crop in Eritrea https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/501 <p>Citrus is the main fruit crop in Eritrea with the main citrus species being orange, lemon and mandarin that are produced in 2064, 328 and 17 ha, respectively. The production and productivity of these fruit crops are affected by several pests. Citrus pest survey was conducted in major citrus growing regions of the country with the objectives to assess the type of citrus insect-pests in the different areas, study the natural enemies of the citrus pests and assess the nature of pest damage on the fruit crop. Pest assessments and counts by species were done using hand lenses under field condition and microscope in laboratory. The result of the study showed that citrus is affected by 21 different species of arthropods out of which 19 are insect species and the remaining 2 species are Acarina (mites). The insect pests cause citrus tree damage at different stage and on different parts of the tree such as leaves, stem, fruit and root. Of the 21 species, six are major pest and the remaining 15 species are minor pests. The six important pests are leaf miner, red scale, black scale, fruit fly, whitefly and red spider mites. Leaf miner, fruit fly and red spider mites were observed in all citrus production areas while the remaining three species were recorded in limited areas. Black and red scales incidence and severity were high in Hamelmalo, Elabered, Alla, and Durfo. Fruit fly is the main pest of citrus throughout the fruit producing areas of the country, threatening its production and cause 20-40 percent fruit dropping and rotting.</p> A Haile, T Mesghena, S Nuredin, M Yemane Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/501 Thu, 20 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Response of seed endophytic bacteria for the management of chickpea wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/502 <p>Vascular wilts are devastating plant diseases that can affect both annual crops as well as woody perennials, hence inducing major food losses and damaging valuable natural ecosystems. Because of ecological and economic reasons, the management of vascular wilt diseases by conventional chemical methods is raising concerns. More environmentally friendly alternatives such as the use of microbial antagonist to control phytopathogens are now of growing interest. The fact that bacterial endophytes are able to colonize an ecological niche similar to that of vascular wilt pathogens favours them as potential biocontrol agents against wilt diseases. Several possible disease suppression mechanisms of beneficial bacteria were proposed, among them induction of systemic resistance, growth promotion and competition. In this view, we studied out the seed endophytic bacteria (SEB) for the management of chickpea wilt Caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>f. sp. <em>ciceris. </em>Among the treatment of seed entophytic bacterial isolate in SEB-5 was found highest germination percent (92% in JG 11), minimum mortality percent at pre and post–emergence (7.69 and 9.53% in JG 11 and JG 16, respectively). The minimum total mortality percent 17.82 % was found in JG 11 of SEB-5. The other seed entophytic bacterial isolate were found statistically at par with SEB-5. The minimum germination percent (78.5% in JG 62) as well as highest total mortality percent approximate 58% in JG 11 was found in T<sub>6</sub> (treated control). Similarly, all the treatments of seed entophytic bacterial had higher root length and shoot length as compared to T<sub>6. </sub>Among the treatments the SEB-5 was found significantly highest by 23 cm in root length and 48 cm in shoot length as well as highest vigour index (6613) over the T<sub>6 </sub>in JG 11 variety. Among the varieties grown the JG 11 was perfumed better and found resistant and JG 62 was found susceptible to wilt. The treatment of seed endophytic bacterial isolate SEB-5, SEB-3, SEB-2, SEB-1 and SEB-4 was identified against wilt pathogen in reduce disease incidence, plant mortality and severity as well as promoting plant growth and health.</p> Y Nain, AR Wasnikar, S Verma, K Choudhary, K Chand Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/502 Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Nutritional survey of kinnow orchards soil series at Rawatsar and Fatehgarh of Hanumangarh district of arid Rajasthan https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/503 <p>The present study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of kinnow orchards at Rawatsar and Fatehgarh soil series of Hanumangarh district in irrigated area of arid Rajasthan. All kinnow orchards soils were found saline in nature, EC<sub>2</sub> of all the orchard soil samples was normal. The calcium carbonate content in soils showed increasing trend with depth, low in organic carbon and available N, low to medium in available P<sub>2</sub> O<sub>5</sub>, medium to high in available K<sub>2</sub>O content, majority of samples were found high in available Fe, available Mn and low to sufficient in available Cu and low in available Zn content. Leaf N content were found low in kinnow orchards, majority of leaf samples found medium to optimum in leaf P, Fe, and Mn content, whereas leaf K content and Zn content were found low to medium in kinnow orchards. The leaves Cu content were found optimum range in kinnow orchards. Fruit juice N, Fe and Mn content were found low to optimum, whereas fruit juice P, K and Cu content were found optimum and Zn content low at Rawatsar and Fatehgarh soil series of Hanumangarh district.</p> Dinesh Kumar, BL Kumawat, BD Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/503 Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Study on genetic variability parameters in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/504 <p>Thirty-two soybean genotypes were assessed to estimate genetic variability parameters in RBD design with three replications during 2021. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed significant variation across the genotypes for each trait studied which showed high variability in experimental material. The higher magnitude (&gt;20%) of GCV and PCV were exhibited by seed yield per plant (33.71% and 35.60%) followed by biological yield per plant (26.64% and 28.47%), number of pods per plant (24.56% and 25.13%) and number of branches per plant (20.24% and 20.75%), respectively. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance showed by seed yield, biological yield, number of pods, number of branches per plant, harvest index, 100-seed weight and plant height, indicating additive gene action and provides the chance for selection-based development of these traits. In this study, higher yield was reported for AUKS 213 (12.44 g) followed by AUKS 259 (11.14 g), AUKS 263 (10.82 g), AUKS 262 (10.44 g) and AUKS 264 (9.99 g) genotypes as per their mean values.</p> Sharmila Kumari, BL Meena, SC Sharma, NR Koli, Yamini Tak, P Fozdar Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/504 Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Development of garam masala powder using organic seed spices and its storability under different packaging materials https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/505 <p>In the current study garam masala powder from organically produced seed spices was developed and to retain its quality for a longer time, a storability study was carried out using different packaging materials. The garam masala was first standardized with the combination of key ingredients <em>i.e</em>. coriander seeds, cumin seeds, dry ginger powder, black pepper, cardamom pods (green), bay leaves, cinnamon, nutmeg, shah jeera and asafetida. The prepared garam masala was tested on <em>dhal</em> and <em>dum aloo</em> curry based on the hedonic score for sensory evaluation. The best masala was again compared with the commercial brands available in the local market. Hedonic scores were recorded and acceptability comparisons were performed with the popular brands available. The standardized garam masala was assessed for essential oil and total oil content and microbial load under different packaging materials (100gauge polythene bag, 200gauge polythene bags, aluminium foil bag, vacuum packing and paper bag) for 18 months with a 6-month interval. The maximum essential oil content (2.58 %, 2.51 % and 2.5 %, respectively) at 6, 12, and 18 months of storage was recorded in the garam masala packed in vacuum packing (polythene 100 gauge). The highest total oil per cent was recorded in vacuum packing (1000gauge polythene) which was 11.96%, 11.6% and 10.1% respectively for 6 months, 12 months and 18 months of storage. The bacterial count in different packaging materials was within the safer limit of consumption. The fungal count was absent during the storage period. The garam masala was found acceptable in quality parameters <em>i.e.</em> essential oil, total oil and microbial load till 18 months of storage. The findings showed that the packaging materials had a marked effect on the concentration of essential oil and total oil of garam masala and the garam masala may be packed in vacuum packaging and aluminium foil packaging for 18 months for longer shelf life.</p> G Lal, S Lal, N Chaudhary, SN Saxena, MK Choudhary, Neha Shekhawat Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/505 Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Momordica balsamina L.: An unexploited vegetable crop rich in medicinal and nutritional properties https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/511 <p>African pumpkin (<em>Momordica balsamina</em> L.) is a tendrilled, wild-type vine plant with a wide range of therapeutic and nutritional properties that has been used as a conventional medicament in many countries. Alkaloids, resins, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycoside, steroids and terpenes are found in the plant's fruits, seeds, leaves and bark, and they have varied medicinal properties <em>viz., </em>anti-bacterial, anti-diarrheal, anti-plasmodial, anti-septic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, analgesic, and hepatoprotective activities. 'Momordin,' a therapeutic agent, can stop HIV and other viruses from multiplying. The leaves are also a good source of nutrients because they contain 17 amino acids and minerals like potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, zinc, manganese, and iron. It also aids in the fight against soil micronutrient deficiencies and high protein and fat content with low fibre content. High potassium content is an excellent source for controlling hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders. This plant may be a protein supplement for poor rural people's cereal-based diets. The medicinal and nutritional value of this wild herb for health care management is discussed in this review.</p> BR Choudhary, MK Berwal, Hanuman Ram, MK Choudhary, Dhurendra Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/511 Thu, 20 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of GA3 and NAA on yield and benefit: cost ratio of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler under the open condition of Manipur https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/517 <p>The present experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur during the session 2021-22. It was Entitled as the effect of GA<sub>3</sub> and NAA on yield and benefit: cost ratio of strawberry (<em>Fragaria x ananassa</em> Duch.) cv. Chandler under open conditions of Manipur. The experiments plot was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replication and nine treatments with the combination of GA<sub>3 </sub>and NAA <em>viz</em>., T<sub>1 </sub>(Control), T<sub>2</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub> 25 ppm), T<sub>3</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub> 50 ppm), T<sub>4</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub> 75 ppm), T<sub>5</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub> 100 ppm), T<sub>6</sub> (NAA 25 ppm), T<sub>7</sub> (NAA 50 ppm), T<sub>8</sub> (NAA 75 ppm) and T<sub>9</sub> (NAA 100 ppm), the treatment GA<sub>3</sub> @ 75 ppm was found maximum concerning several fruits, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit volume, specific gravity, harvesting duration, yield and B: C ratio as compared with other treatments and the minimum was recorded in control. Hence, it is concluded that treatment T<sub>4</sub> (GA<sub>3</sub> 75 ppm) positively impacts yield and benefit: cost ratio of strawberry cv. Chandler under open conditions of Manipur.</p> Alok Singh, RK Dilip Singh, Ng Piloo, NO Singh, NS Devi, SR Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/517 Thu, 20 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of potato genotypes against early blight (Alternaria alternata) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/518 <p>Early blight (<em>Alternaria alternata</em>) of the potato is the most destructive disease in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Natural epidemics of early blight are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, even though severe disease appears every year in northern India. Twenty-eight genotypes were used in this study to differentiate between early blight resistance and susceptible genotypes selected to represent a range of reactions when screened field conditions. Out of twenty-eight genotypes/varieties, six genotypes <em>viz</em>., CP-3021, 3153, Atlantic, Chip-3, Jx-161 and MS/78-62 showed a resistant reaction. While thirteen genotypes were moderately resistant. However, six genotypes were susceptible while three genotypes were highly susceptible. Resistant varieties can be the simplest, effective and economical method of plant disease control. The use of resistant varieties cannot only ensure protection against diseases but also save the time, energy and money spent on other control methods.</p> PK Meena, DL Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/518 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Diversity, abundance and foraging behaviour of pollinators in early sown rapeseed-mustard genotypes https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/519 <p>A study was carried out on the diversity, abundance and foraging behaviour of pollinators in early sown rapeseed-mustard genotypes through observing a total of 17 insect species visited flowers of early sown genotypes viz., 9 Hymenopterans, 3 Dipterans, 4 Lepidopterans, and 1 Coleopteran. The abundance (bees/m2/5 min) of <em>A. florea</em> was highest (8.5) followed by <em>A. mellifera</em> (3.9), <em>A. dorsata</em> (3.6) and <em>A. cerana</em> (3.1). The abundance of bee species was maximum (5.6 bees/m2/5 min) in genotypes TH 68 and SANGAM. <em>A. cerana</em> foraged a maximum number of flowers per minute (18.20) followed by <em>A. dorsata</em> (17.57), <em>A. mellifera</em> (17.32) and <em>A. florea</em> (6.45). The foraging rate (flowers/min) of all bee species was maximum (14.98 and 14.90) in genotypes TH 68 and SANGAM. Time spent per flower (sec) was maximum (5.3) by <em>A. florea</em> followed by <em>A. dorsata</em> (1.7), <em>A. mellifera</em> (1.6) and <em>A. cerana indica</em> (1.3). The maximum time spent per flower by all bee species (2.6) was in genotype PDZ 9. Nectar or pollen gatherers were maximum in <em>A. dorsata</em> (37.8% and 25.6%, respectively), while both nectar and pollen gatherers were maximum in <em>A. cerana</em> (45.3%). Nectar foraging, pollen foraging and both nectar and pollen foraging were maximum at peak flowering (36.0%), peak flowering (23.8%) and flowering cessation (42.9%), respectively. Out of the total foragers, top workers were maximum in <em>A. dorsata</em> (97.8%), while side workers were maximum in <em>A. florea</em> (41.0%).</p> Poonam, S Yadav, MK Jat, SS Yadav, Harish Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/519 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Eco-friendly organic management of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) under stored conditions https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/520 <p>The results showed that neem leaf powder was the most effective treatment with a record of the highest mean adult mortality of 67.22 per cent and also exhibited the lowest weight loss of 0.67 per cent after 60 days of treatment. It was followed by powders of Eucalyptus (58.89% &amp; 0.87%) and Tulsi (51.11% &amp; 0.80%). The least effectiveness of turmeric rhizome powder against the pest recording minimum adult mortality and maximum weight loss of 30.56% and 1.07% per cent respectively was noticed control against adult mortality (30.56 %), grain weight loss and adult emergence owing to <em>T. castaneum</em>. As a result, 1.5 g/100 g of grains of neem leaf powder can be recommended as a safe control method against <em>T. castaneum</em> in stored wheat. The overall mean adult mortality of <em>T. castaneum</em> in fenvalerate was 72.78 per cent. When it came to treating <em>T. castneum</em> with some inert materials, boric acid treatment was the most effective showed the 100 percent adult mortality, followed by coal ash (71.67 %) and cow dung ash (63.33 %) after 5 days of storage. There was minimum grain weight loss and least adult emergence was recorded in the treatment of coal ash and cow dung ash. Whereas sawdust resulted in the least effective treatment with mean adult mortality of (35.56 %), there was maximum adult emergence seen.</p> KI Singh, GC Sekar, Th R Singh, SM Haldhar, TR Singh, KL Devi, PS Devi, CS Devi Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/520 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Impact through a front-line demonstration on yield and economics of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) in arid Kachchh of Gujarat https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/521 <p>It is customary in India to offer fennel seeds after a meal and eating fennel seeds after a meal is considered a healthy practice, primarily because of its ability to keep the digestive system healthy. Seed spices played an important role in the Indian economy under agricultural commodities for a long time. Front frontline demonstrations (FLDs) on Fennel were organized by ICAR-CAZRI, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kukma, Bhuj in different villages of Anjar and Bhuj Talukas of Kachchh from 2019-20 to 2021-22. The high-yielding variety Gujarat Fennel-12 was evaluated at the farmer’s field under the front line demonstration programme (FLDs). A total of 60 demonstrations were conducted in 24 ha area at farmer’s fields against farmer’s practice in arid Kachchh of Gujarat. The average seed yield under improved practice was 2160 kg ha<sup>–1</sup> compared to the farmer’s practice (1770 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and increased significantly by 22.08% on average over the farmer’s practice output. The average extension gap, technology gap and technology index were 390.00 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 240.00 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 10.00%, respectively. Through adopting improved practices, farmers get additional average returns of Rs.22562 ha<sup>-1</sup>. During this period the extension activities like farmer’s training, distribution of literature, diagnostic visits etc. were taken to provide instant benefit to the farmers. Frontline demonstrations programme created greater awareness, attitude and skill to adopt improved practices of Fennel and therefore, increased their production and economics.</p> Ramniwas, M Kanwat, SR Jat Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/521 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Assess the effect of natural ageing and storage containers on seed quality of tomato seeds https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/522 <p>The present study entitled "Seed quality assessment in the naturally aged seed of tomato was conducted during rabi 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The freshly stored seed was observed to be highest in seed quality parameters <em>i.e.</em>, germination per cent, seedling length, seedling dry weight and seed vigour indices as compared to when seeds were stored in different containers during 18 months storage period. As the storage period increase, the seed quality parameter goes on decreasing. Among the containers, 18-month seeds stored in a polythene bag (&gt; 700 gauge) recorded significantly higher seed germination (60.67%), seedling length (8.77cm), seedling dry weight (11.42 mg), vigour index -I (532) and seed vigour index-II (793) as compared to a cloth bag. Standard germination percentage was maintained up to 15 months of storage in a polythene bag. In both containers, polythene bags performed better than cloth bags throughout the storage period.</p> Nisha, A Bhuker, SS Jakhar, N Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/522 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Impact through frontline demonstrations on yield, yield gap and economics of drumstick farming in arid Kachchh of Gujarat https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/523 <p>Drumstick (<em>Moringa oleifera </em>L<em>.</em>) is one of the world’s most nutritious crops and is one of the most popular vegetables grown throughout India. It has helped mankind in combating malnutrition in children and increasing immunity. Front-line demonstration (FLDs) is one of the most popular tools for technology transfer. ICAR-CAZRI, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kukma, Bhuj conducted field studies for two consecutive years of 2016-17 and 2017-18 through frontline demonstrations (FLDs) on yield and economics of drumstick farming in different villages of Bhachau and Bhuj Talukas of Kachchh, Gujarat. This tree is easy to cultivate, resistant to drought and produces a high concentration of protein, vitamins and minerals. It is a rare horticulture crop which begins fruiting within six months of planting and continues to do so for a period of eight to nine years. In Kachchh, Gujarat, the crop has been just introduced owing to its suitability in arid conditions of the region. The average pod yield under demonstration was 197.80 q ha<sup>–1</sup> compared to the farmer’s local variety (158.88 q ha<sup>–1</sup>) and increased significantly by 24.50% on average over farmers used variety. The average extension gap, technology gap and technology index were 3892 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 5220 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 20.88%, respectively. By adopting improved variety, farmers get additional average returns of Rs. 57,630 ha<sup>-1</sup> and B: C ratio of 4.82.</p> Ramniwas, M Kanwat, SR Jat Copyright (c) 2022 https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/523 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Identification of early maturing and leaf determinate growth habit type accessions of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/513 <p>Cluster bean (<em>Cyamopsis tetragonoloba</em> L. Taub.), commonly known as guar, is a member of the family Papilionaceae, cultivated in the Indian Sub-continent since time immemorial. It is a drought-hardy leguminous annual crop used variously for vegetables, forage and green manure. There is tremendous variability available in Indian cluster bean germplasm. Genetic resources with their enormous variability for different characters provide the base for the improvement of crop plants. Within genetic resources, genetic stocks are expected to play a major role in future crop improvement programmes. One promising unbranched, single-stemmed and flower determinate growth habit bearing accession IC-140784P1, developed through single plant selection at ICAR-NBPGR Regional Station Jodhpur starts flowering at 23 days after sowing and flowers 50% at 32 days after sowing. This accession does mature only 82 days after sowing. These accessions mature about 10-15 days early compared to normal existing improved cultivars, which take 90-95 days for maturity. Another accession IC 569315 has been characterized as leaf determinate (in which the stem terminates into the leaf) with alternate cluster-bearing habit. The majority of the cluster bean crop is grown under rainfed conditions in the drier parts of the country. Therefore, maturity is an important trait, especially for cluster bean.</p> Dr. Kartar Singh, Dr. Vijay Singh Meena, Dr. Neelam Shekhawat, Dr. Hans Raj Mahla, Dr. S. Gopal Krishnan, Dr. Veena Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Ecology https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/513 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0530