Role of insect pollinators and pollinizers in arid and semi-arid horticultural crops

  • S M Haldhar
  • R Kumar
  • D K Samadia
  • B Singh
  • H Singh


Pollinators and pollinizers play pivotal role in pollination of arid and semi-arid horticultural crop species for sustaining the crop diversity and production systems. Many horticultural crops such as ber, aonla, pomegranate, phalsa, fig, jamun, citrus, bael, khejri, cucurbits, field beans etc. require insect pollinators for efficient pollination) to gain the higher yield. The pollinators and pollinizers increase quantitative and qualitative traits of horticultural crop produce. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the role of native as well as managed pollinators in the arid and semi-arid horticultural crop production. It is necessary to understand the importance of pollinators and pollinizers species richness or diversity in their natural habitat and role in crop improvement. The pollination with honeybees, knowledge about pollinizers, pollinator’s management and artificial pollination are major horticultural inventions to enhance the yield and quality in horticultural crops, since they are highly cross pollinated crops, and promote beekeeping industry to produce good quality honey.


Download data is not yet available.


Ackerman WL. 1961. Flowering, pollination, self-sterility and seed development of Chinese jujube. Proceeding of American Society of Horticulture Science, 77: 265-9.
Allemullah M & Ram S. 1990. Causes of low fruit set and heavy fruit drop in Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Indian Journal of Horticulture, 47: 270-277.
Anonymous 2006. Grower and beekeeper guide: Avocado pollination-best practice guidelines, Avocado Industry Council Ltd., Tauranga, New Zealand.
Aouar-sadli Malika, Kamel Louadi & Salah-eddine Doumandji 2008. Pollination of the Broad bean (Vicia faba L.var. major: Fabaceae) by wild bees and honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and its impact on the seed production in the Tizi-Ouzou area (Algeria). African Journal of Agriculture Research, 3: 266-272.
Awad MA. 2007. Fruit set failure in tissue culture- derived date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) CV. Nabt saif, as affected by pollinator type and pollination density. Acta Horticulture, 736: 441- 448.
Baddiyavar S. 2013. Studies on flower visitors of field bean Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet and their role in pollination and pod set. Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. pp. 1-93.
Bajpai A, Singh AK & Ravishankar H. 2012. Reproductive phenology, flower biology and pollination in jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.). Indian Journal of Horticulture, 69: 416-419.
Banack SA. 1996. Flying foxes, genus Pteropus, in the Samoan Islands: interactions with forest communities. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Beekman M & Ratnieks FLW. 2000. Long-range foraging by the honey-bee, Apis melliera L. Functional Ecology, 14: 490-496.
Betts AD. 1940. [F. Cavolini, in 1782, discovered the part insects play in fertilizing the fig]. Bee world, 21: 12.
Bezerra ADM. 2014. Usodeabelha canudo (Scaptotrigona sp. nov.) na polinizacao do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L.) em ambiente protegido. Dissertacao de mestrado (Mestrado em Zootecnia), Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil, 91pp.
Bomfim IGA, Cruz DO, Freitas BM & Aragao FAS. 2013. Polinizacaoem melancia come sem semente. Fortaleza, Brazil: Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical (Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical. Documentos, 168, 53pp.
Chaudhary OP & Singh J. 2007. Diversity, temporal abundance, foraging behaviour of floral visitors and effect of different modes of pollination on coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 16: 8-14.
Chaudhary OP, Singh J & Dashad SS. 2002. Foraging behaviour and pollination ecology of honeybees on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Proceedings, 6th Asian Apicultural Association.
Condit IJ & Enderud J. 1956. A bibliography of the fig. Hilgardia, 25: 1-663.
Condit IJ & Swingle WT. 1947. The fig. Chronica botanica co., Waltham, 222 pp.
Condit IJ. 1927. The kadota fig. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 436,42 pp.
Condit IJ. 1938. Parthenocarpy in the fig. American Society of Horticulture Science Proceeding, 36: 401-404.
Couto RHN & Calmona RC. 1993. Polinização entomófi la empepino (Cucumis sativus L. var. Aodai melhorada). Naturalia, 18: 77-82.
Cox PA, Elmqvist T, Pierson ED & Rainey WE. 1992. Flying foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers in Pacific island ecosystems. Biological Report, 90: 18-23.
Cruz DO & Campos LAO. 2009. Polinizacao por abelhas em cultivos protegidos. Revista Brasileira de Agrociência, 15: 5-10.
Dafni A, Kevan PG & Husband BC. 2005. Practical Pollination Biology. Cambridge, Ontario, Canada: Enviroquest, 590 pp.
Darwin CR. 1862. On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing. John Murray, London, UK.
Darwin CR. 1876. The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. John Murray, London, UK.
Delaplane KS & Mayer DF. 2000. Crop Pollination by Bees. Cambridge, U.K.: CABI, 344 pp.
Derin K. & Eti S. 2001. Determination of pollen quality, quantity and effect of cross pollination on the fruit set and quality in the pomegranate. Turkish Journal of Agriculture, 25: 169-173.
Dey K, Mondal S & Mandal S. 2016. Flower visitor interaction and fruit production of Grewia asiatica L. Internationa Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 5(1): 761-767.
Dhaliwal JS. 1975. Insect pollination in ber (Zizyphus mallritiana Lamk.). Current Science, 44 (14): 527.
Dyer FC & Seeley TD. 1991. Dance dialects and foraging range in three Asian honey bee species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 28: 227-233.
Eisen G. 1897. Fig culture: edible figs, their culture and curing. U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Pomol. Bull.5,31 pp.
El-Hammady MM, Khalifa AS & El-Hammady AM. 1977. The effect of date pollen on some physical and chemical characters of (Hayani variety). Research Bulletin No.773, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
El-Salhy AM, El-Bana AA, Abdel-Galil HA & Ahmed EF. 2010. Effect of pollen grains suspensions spraying on yield and fruit quality of Saidy date palm. Acta Horticulture, 882: 329-336.
Faegri K & Van der Pijl L. 1979. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Pergamon, Oxford.
Free JB. 1970. Insect pollination of crops. Academic press , New York. 544 pp.
Free JB. 1993. Insect pollination of crops 2nd ed. Academic Press, London, U.K., 684 pp.
Free JB. 1993. Insect pollination of crops. 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York.
Gill SS, Kaushik HD & Sharma SK. 2001. Effect of modes of pollination on fruit set and insect pollinators of phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis D. C.). Research on Crops, 2: 193-196.
Gorain M, Charan SK & Ahmed SI. 2012. Role of insect bees in the pollination of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce (Leguminosae, Subfamily Mimosoideae) in Rajasthan. Advances in Applied Science Research, 3: 3448-51.
Guerra Sanz JM. 2008. Crop pollination in greenhouses. In: Bee Pollination in Agricultural Ecosystems. James, R.R., Pitts-Singer, T.L. (eds.), New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., pp. 27-47.
Haldhar SM, Bhargava R, Krishna H, Berwal MK & Saroj PL. 2018. Bottom-up effects of different host plant resistance cultivars on ber (Ziziphus mauritiana)-fruit fly (Carpomyia vesuviana) interactions. Crop Protection, 106: 117-124.
Haldhar SM, Deshwal HL, Jat GC, Berwal MK & Singh D. 2016. Pest scenario of ber (Ziziphus mauritianaLam.) in arid regions of Rajasthan: a review. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 1: 10-21.
Haldhar SM, Karuppaiah V, Muralidharan CM & Sharma SK. 2015. Insect-pests of date palm and their management. ‘Insect Pests Management of Fruit Crops’ edited by A. K. Pandey and Pramod and published by Biotech Books, New Delhi. Pp: 405- 421
Haldhar SM, Karuppaiah V, Sharma SK & Singh RS. 2010. Population dynamics of lemon butterfly (Papilio demoleus) in bale (Egle marmelos) as influenced by abiotic factors in arid region of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Arid Horticulture, 5: 50-52.
Haldhar SM, Maheshwari SK & Muralidharan CM. 2017. Pest status of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in arid regions of India: a review. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 3: 1-11.
Haldhar SM, Samadia DK & Choudhary B R. 2018. Biotic stress (Insect) of Cucurbits in Arid Region of Rajasthan: A Review. JOJ Horticulture and Arboriculture, 1: 1-9.
Haldhar SM, Sharma SK, Bhargava R, Singh RS, Sharma BD & Singh D. 2013. Insect pests of arid fruit crops: practical manual for field identification and damage symptoms. CIAH/ Tech./ Pub. No. 42 pp 1-53.
Haldhar SM. 2012. Report of Homoeocerus variabilis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on khejri (Prosopis cineraria) in Rajasthan, India: incidence and morphometric analysis. Florida Entomologist, 95: 848-853.
Higazy MK, Ghayaty SHE, Makhton FBA. 1982. Effects of pollen type on fruit setting, yield and some physical fruit properties of some date varieties. Proceeding of the first symposium on the date palm held at King Faisal University. Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.
House SM. 1989. Pollen movement to flowering canopies of pistillate individuals of three rainforest tree species in tropical Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 14: 77-94.
Hussein F, Moustafa, S, Mahmud L. 1979. The direct effect of pollen (metaxenia) on fruit characteristics of dates grown in Saudi Arabia. Proceeding of Saudi Biology Society, 3.
Jones RF & Crome FHJ. 1990. The biological webplant/ animal interactions in the rainforest. In: L.J. Webb & J. Kikkawa (eds.) Australian Tropical Rainforests, CSIRO, Australia.
Josan SS, Jawanda JS & Uppal DK. 1979. Studies on floral biology of pomegranate II. Anthesis, dehiscence, pollen studies and receptivity of stigma. Punjab Horticulture Journal, 9: 66-70.
Kaiser C, Hansen DM & Muller CB. 2008. Habitat structure affects reproductive success of the rare endemic tree Syzygium mamillatum (Myrtaceae) in restored and unrestored sites in Mauritius. Biotropica, 40: 86–94.
Kalin-Arroyo MT. 1981. Breeding systems and pollination biology in leguminosae.p.723-69.
Kambal AE, Bond DAK & Tonybee-Clark G. 1976. A study on the pollination mechanism in field beans (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Agriculture Science, (Camb.) 87: 517-526.
Karmakar P. 2013. Pollination Biology of Citrus Auiifrantolia (Christm.) Swingle: A Medicinally Important Fruit Plant. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 2: 138-142.
Karuppaiah V, Haldhar SM & Sharma SK. 2015. Insect pests of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamarck) and their Management. ‘Insect Pests Management of Fruit Crops’ edited by A. K. Pandey and Pramod and published by Biotech Books, New Delhi. Pp: 271- 294.
Keith M. 1995. Insect as source of pollinating of crops. Journal of Entomological Sciences, 18: 271-274.
Klatt BK, Holzschuh A, Westphal C, Clough Y, Smit I, Pawelzik E & Tscharntke T. 2014. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B-Biological Sciences, 281: 20132440.
Klein AM, Vaissiere BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C & Tscharntke T. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B-Biological Sciences, 274:303-313.
Kumar M & Jaiswal BK. 2012. Effect of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) pollination on yield and quality in coriander. Indian Journal of Entomology, 74: 281-284.
Kumar R, Jayesh KC & Kumar R. 2004. Crossability in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Indian Journal of Horticulture, 61: 209-210.
Kumar S. 1990. Studies on insect pollination in ber, Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk. M.Sc. Thesis. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar.
Leding AR. 1928. Determination of length of time during which the flowers of the date palm remain receptive to fertilization. Journal of Agriculture Research, 36: 129-134.
Levin GM. 2006. Pomegranate Roads: A Soviet Botanist's Exile from Eden (I" Edn), Floreant Press, Forestville, CA, pp 15-183.
Manzoor-ul-haq GA & Inayatullah R. 1979. Insect visitors of phalsa, Grewia asiatica (Linn) and their role in its pollination. Journal of Agriculture Research, University of Agriculture, 1: 45-50.
Marchini LC, Almeida D, Vásquez MAN, Moreti ACCC & Otsuk LP. 2006. Observações sobre a polinização de melão (Cucumis melo L.) cultivado em estufa. Review Agriculture, 81: 100-111.
Mars M. 2000. Pomegranate plant material: Genetic evaluation of certain parents and hybrids in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Journal of Andaman Science Association, 15: 64-68.
McGregor SE. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agriculture Handbook, pp. 496.
Meena NK, Singh B, Kant K, Meena RD & Solanki RK. 2015. Role of insect pollinators in pollination of seed spices-A review. International Journal of Seed Spices, 5:1-17.
Mehmood K, Hussain S, Mustafa N, Bodlah I & Ahmad M. 2015. Insect pollinators visiting citrus (Citrus limon) and avocado (Persea americana) fruit trees. Asian Journal of Agriculture Biology, 3: 23-27.
Mishra RM, Gupta P & Yadav GP. 2004. Intensity and diversity of flower-visiting insects in relation to plant density of Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk. Tropical Ecology, 45: 263-270.
Morandin LA & Winston ML. 2006. Pollinators provide economic incentive to preserve natural land in agro-ecosystems. Agriculture Ecosystem Environment, 116: 289-292.
Morton J. 1987. Pomegranate. In: Fruits of Warm Climates, Miami, FL. Available online:www.hort.purdue.edulnewcrop/mortonlpomegranate.html.
Mothew CA. Al-Rawi H. Al-Zubahidi A. Shukur M. Al-Obaid S. & Z. Al-Doori. 1975. The effect of different type of pollination of individual trees with different pollens. Proceedings of the 3rd International Palm and Date Conference, November 30-December 4, 1975, Baghdad, Iraq, pp: 1-17.
Mudiana D. & Ariyanti EE. 2010. Flower and fruit development of Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M. Perry. Biodiversitas, 11: 124–128.
Nabhan GP & Buchmann SE. 1997. ‘Services provided by pollinators.’ In GC Daily (ed), Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems, pp 133-150. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Nalawadi VA, Farooqui AA, Oasgupta N, Reddy MA, Gubbaiah Sulikeri GS & Nalini AS. 1973. Studies on the floral biology of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science, 7: 213-225.
Nath N & Randhawa GS. 1959a. Studies on floral biology of pomegranate. n. Anthesis, dehiscence, pollen studies and receptivity of stigma. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 16: 121-135.
Nath N & Randhawa GS. 1959b. Studies on floral biology in the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Pollination, fruit-set and seed formation. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 16: 136-140.
Nicodemo D, Couto RHN, Malhieros EB & Dejong D. 2009. Honey bee as an effective pollinating agent of pumpkin. Scientia Agricola, 66:476-480.
Nixon 1928. The direct effect of pollen on the fruit of the date palm. Journal of Agriculture Research, 36: 97-128.
Nixon 1959. Growing dates in the United States. U.S. Dept. Agri., Agriculture Information Bulletin, 207: 50 pp.
Osman A, Reuther A, Erickson LO. 1974. Xenia and metaxenia studies in the date palm (phonix dactyliferal.) Annals of Republic Date Growers Institute, 51: 6-16.
Pareek O.P. 1983. The Ber. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi. pp.25-27.
Parmar 1976. Pollination and fruit set in phalsa (Grewia asiatica L.). Agriculture and Agro industries Journal, 9: 12-14.
Partap U. 2011. The pollination role of honeybees. In Hepburn, HR; Radloff, S (eds), Honeybees of Asia, Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag. pp 227-255.
Pashte VV & Kulkarni SR. 2015. Role of pollinators in qualitative fruit crop production: A Review. Trends in Biosciences, 8: 3743-49.
Payne R. 1997. The distribution and reproductive ecology of Syzygium paniculatum and Syzygium austral (Myrtaceae) in the Gosford-Wyong region. M.Sc. Thesis. University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales.
Pross AG. 1938. Pomegranate of the Sourkhan-Daria region. Soviet Subtropics, 3: 27-37.
Rahnama AA , Rahkhodaei E. 2014. The effects of date pollinizer variety and pollination time on fruit set and yield of Medjhol date palm. Journal of Advances in Agriculture, 2(2): 67-71.
Raj H & Mattu VK. 2014. Diversity and distribution of insect pollinators on various temperate fruit crops in Himachal Himalaya, India. International of Journal of Science and Nature, 5: 626-631.
Raju AJS, Krishna JR & Chandra PH. 2014. Reproductive ecology of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae), an endemic and endangered tropical tree species in the southern Eastern Ghats of India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6: 6153-71.
Ramanujam S, Joshi BS & Saxena MBL. 1964. Extent and randomness of cross pollination in some Umbelliferous spices of India. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 24: 62-67.
Reasoner PW. 1891. The condition of tropical and semi-tropical fruits. U.S. Department of Agriculture Division Pomology Bulletin, 1: 149 pp.
Reddi EUB. & Rangaiah K. 1999–2000. Breeding systems and pollinating agents of the Indian Blackberry, Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae). Journal of Palynology, 35-36: 117-128.
Ricciardelli DG & Persano OL. 1981. Flora Apistica italiana. Istituto sperimentale zoologia agraria and Federazione italiana apicoltori, Interstampa, Rome.
Roubik D W. 1995. Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, 118, Rome.
Samadia DK & Haldhar SM. 2017. Breeding strategies and scope of improvement in arid zone fruit crop-plants under abiotic stressed agro-climate: an analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 4: 1-13.
Sanford MT. 1992. Pollination of citrus by honey bees. RFAA092. Florida Coop. Ext. Serv., Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Univ. of Florida.
Satapathy SN & Chandra U. 2017. Pollination efficiency of insect pollinators on Aegle marmelos Correa. at Kumarganj, Faizabad. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(4): 570-572.
Shah I, Shah M, Khan A & Usman A. 2015. Response of insect pollinators to different cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae) varieties and their impact on yield. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3: 374-378.
Shaheen MA. Bacha MA. & Nasr TA. 1989a. Effect of male type on fruit setting, yield and fruit, physical properties in some date palm cultivars. Annals of Agriculture Science Faculties, 34: 283-299.
Shaheen MA., Bacha MA. & Nasr TA. 1989b. Effect of male type on fruit chemical properties in some date palm. Annals of Agriculture Science Faculties, 34: 265-281.
Shaheen MA.1986. Pistil receptivity in three cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L). Proc.1 Tanta Univ. Egypt. September, 11: 489-499.
Shilova SN. 1972. The flowering biology of dill and fennel. Nauchnye Turdy Maikopskoi Opytnoi.
Sihag RC. 1986. Insect pollination increase seed production in cruciferous and umbelliferous crops. Journal of Apiculture Research, 25: 121-126.
Singh H, Swaminathan R & Haldhar SM. 2016. Foraging behavior of insect pollinators on coriander. Indian Journal of Arid Horticulture, 11: 74-80.
Singh MP. 1984. Studies on the activity of some insect pollinators on jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk). Entomon, 9: 177-180.
Singh RP, Kar PL & Ohuria HS. 1978. Studies on the behaviour of flowering and sex expression in some pomegranate cultivars. Plant Science, 10: 29-31.
Singhal VK, Salwan A, Kumar P & Kaur J. 2011. Phenology, pollination and breeding system of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa (Rutaceae) from India. New Forests, 42:85-100.
Southwick EE & Southwick LJ. 1992. Estimating the economic value of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as agricultural pollinators in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85:621-633.
Stone GN, Williams PG & Rowe RA. 1998. Partitioning of pollinators during flowering in an African Acacia community. Ecology, 79: 2808-2827.
Stone GN. 1994. Activity patterns of the solitary bee Anthophora plumupes in relation to temperature, nectar supplies and body size. Ecological Entomology, 19: 177-189.
Swingle WT. 1928. Metaxenia in the date palm possibly a hormone action by the embryo or endosperm.J. Hered 19: 257-268.
Swingle, W.T., 1928. Metaxenia in the date palm, possibly hormone action by the embryo or endosperm. J. Hered., 19: 257-268.
Tao De-shuang, Dong Xia, Dong Kun, Zhang Xue-wen and Yu Yu-sheng 2010. Study on the effects of pollination by honey-bees on pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Journal of Bee, 3: 10-11.
Teaotia, S.S. and Chauhan, R.S. 1964. Flowering, pollination, fruit set and fruit drops studies in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.), II. Pollination, fruit-set, fruit development and fruit drop. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 21: 40-5.
Thapa RB. 2006. Honeybees and other insect pollinators of cultivated plants: A Review. Journal of Institute Agriculture and Animal Science, 27:1-23.
Venturieri GC, Alves DA, Villas-Boas K, Carvalho CAL, Menezes C, Vollet-Neto A, Contrera FAL, Cortopassi-Laurino M, Nogueira-Neto P, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL. 2012. Meliponicultura no Brasil: Situacao atual e perspectivas futuras para o uso na polinizacao agricola. In: Polinizadoresno Brasil: Contribuição e perspectivas para a biodiversidade, uso sustentável, conservação e serviçosambientais. Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L., Canhos, D.A.L., Alves, D.A., Saraiva, A.M. (Orgs.), Sao Paulo, Brazil: Edusp, pp. 213–236.
Vicens N & Bosch J. 2000. Weather dependent pollinator activity in an apply orchard, with special reference to Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymnoptera: Megachilidae and Apidae). Environmental Entomology, 29: 413-420.
Weber A. 1995. Pollination of Nigella arvensis (Ranunculaceae) Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl., 9: 325-326.
Wilcock C & Neiland R. 2002. Pollination failure in plants: why it happens and when it matters. Trends in Plant Science, 7: 270-277.
Williams G & Adam P. 2010. The Flowering of Australia’s Rainforests. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 200 pp.
Williams GA & Williams T. 1983. A list of Buprestidae (Coleoptera) of the Sydney basin, New South Wales, with adult food records and biological notes on food plant associations. Australian Entomological Magazine, 9: 81-93.
Yadav GP. 1990. Studies of Pollination Ecology of Some Species of Genus Zizyphus (Rhamnaceae). Ph.D. Thesis, A.P.S. University, Rewa (M.P.), India.
How to Cite
HALDHAR, S M et al. Role of insect pollinators and pollinizers in arid and semi-arid horticultural crops. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, [S.l.], v. 5, p. 1-25, june 2018. ISSN 2456-9410. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 aug. 2021.
Pollinator, pollinizers, honey bee, arid and semi-arid horticultural crops

Most read articles by the same author(s)