Imidacloprid residues in cotton guttation fluid, pollen and soil when applied as seed dressings


  • K Rolania Assistant Scientist
  • A Janu Bussiness Development Analyst
  • S Ahlawat Assistant Chemist
  • SS Yadav Assistant Director (Plant Protection)



Gossypium hirsutum, Guttation Fluid, Imidacloprid, Pollen and Seed Dressing


Guttation fluid and pollen are possible pathways where pollinators may be exposed to systemic insecticides. During the investigation, Gossypium hirsutum v. H 1098i seeds were coated with Gaucho (Imidacloprid 600 FS at 2.4 g a.i. kg-1seeds) and planted in the field. Guttation fluid, pollen, and soil samples were collected during the season and the samples were analysed by HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography). The guttation fluid and pollen were collected at three times after 50 per cent flowering. Soil samples were collected before sowing and at harvest. Method validation was achieved by performing a recovery experiment at two fortification levels of 0.05 and 0.10 mg kg-1. The average recoveries obtained from guttation fluid, pollen and soil samples were above 85 per cent. The residues of imidacloprid in guttation fluid, pollen and soil in treated and untreated seed were below detectable levels.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

K Rolania, Assistant Scientist

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar

A Janu, Bussiness Development Analyst

UPL SAS Limited, Bandra, Mumbai

S Ahlawat, Assistant Chemist

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar

SS Yadav, Assistant Director (Plant Protection)

Directorate of Research, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar


Blacquiere T, Smagghe G, Cornelis AMVG & Mommaerts V. 2012. Neonicotinodis in bees: a review on concentrations, side effects and risk assessment. Ecotoxicology, 21: 973-992.

Bonmatin JM, Moineau I, Charvet R, Fleche C, Colin ME & Bengsch ER. 2003. A LC/APCI-MS/MS Method for analysis of imidacloprid in soils, in plants and in pollens. Analytical Chemistry, 75 (9): 2027-2033.

Choudhary A & Sharma DC. 2008. Dynamics of pesticide residues in nectar and pollen of mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) grown in Himachal Pradesh (India). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 144:143-150.

Cui L, Qi H, Yang D, Yuan H & Rui C. 2016. Cycloxaprid: A novel cis -nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide to control imidacloprid resistance cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 132: 96-101.

Dhaliwal GS, Jindal V & Dhawan AK. 2010. Insect pest problems and crop losses: changing trends. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37: 1-7.

Dikshit AK, Lal OP, Sinha SR & Srivastava YN. 2002. Safety evaluation, persistence and bioefficacy of Imidacloprid and beta cyfluthrin on okra. Part II. Pestology, 26(7): 30-37.

Goulson D. 2013. An overview of the environmental risk posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50: 977-987.

Helal A, Mukherjee I, Gopal M, Ametha OP, Patel BS & Somchoudhary AK. 2005. Multilocational field trials using Imidacloprid as seed treatment to propose its MRL in mustard (Brassica campestris Linn.) leaves. Pestology, 29 (7): 15-19.

Kalyan RK, Saini DP, Meena BM, Pareek A, Naruka P, Verma S & Joshi S. 2017. Evaluation of new molecules against jassids and whitleflies of Bt cotton. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5 (3): 236-240.

Kamel A. 2012. Insecticide Residues in Pollen and Nectar of a Cucurbit Crop and Their Potential Exposure to Pollinators. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(18): 4449-56.

Kumar R, Kranthi KR, Monga D & Haldhar SM. 2009. Natural parasitization of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton by Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) during 2008-09. Journal of Biological Control, 23 (4): 457-460.

Kumar R, Kranthi S, Nitharwal M, Haldhar SM & Monga D. 2012a. Influence of pesticides and application methods on pest and predatory arthropods associated with cotton. Phytoparasitica, DOI 10.1007/s12600-012-0241-5.

Kumar R, Monga D, Haldhar SM, Indoria AK, Chauhan R & Kranthi KR. 2012b. Impact evaluation of insecticide resistance management strategies in cotton under Technology Mini-Mission on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 82 (10): 852–857.

Kumari B, Madan VK & Kathpal TS. 2008. Status of insecticide contamination of soil and water in Haryana, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 136: 239–244.

Miles I. 1993. Imidacloprid: Pesticides leaching potential model. Report No. 105008.

Ohno, Tomizawa M, Durkin KA, Naruse Y, Casida JE & Kagabu S. 2009. Molecular features of neonicotinoids pharmacophore variants interacting with the insect nicotinic receptor. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 22: 476-482.

Pandiselvi P, Sathiyanarayanan S & Ramesh A. 2010. Determination of spirotetramat and imidacloprid residues in cotton seed, lint, oil and soil by HPLC UV method and their dissipation in cotton plant. Pesticide Research Journal, 22 (2): 168-173.

Reetz JE, Zühlke S, Spiteller M & Wallner K. 2011. Neonicotinoid insecticides translocated in guttated droplets of seed-treated maize and wheat: a threat to honeybees? Apidologie, in press DOI: 10.1007/s13592-011-0049-1.

Schenke D, Joachimsmeier I, Pistorius J & Heimbach U. 2010. Pesticides in guttation droplets following seed treatment – Preliminary results from greenhouse experiments. Poster SETAC Europe 20th Annual Meeting Seville, Spain, 23-24 May.

Schenke D, Joachimsmeier I, Pistorius J & Heimbach U. 2011. Pesticides in guttation droplets following seed treatment- field studies. SETAC North America 32nd Annual Meeting, Boston, US 13-17 November.

Schmuck R, Schoning R, Stork A & Schramel O. 2001. Risk posed to honeybees (Aphis mellifera L, Hymenoptera) by an imidacloprid seed dressing of sunflowers. Pest Management Science, 57: 225-238.

Scholz K & Spiteller M. 1992. Influence of groundcover on the degradation of 14C- imidacloprid in soil. Brighton Crop protection conference – Pest and diseases. 883-888.

Sur R & Stork A. 2003. Uptake, Translocation and metabolism of imidacloprid in plants. Bulletin of Insectology, 56 (1): 35-40.

Tapparo A, Giorio C, Marzaro M, Marton D, Solda L & Girolami V. 2011. Rapid analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in guttation drops of corn seedlings obtained from coated seeds. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13 (6): 1564-1568.

Tomizawa M & Casida JE. 2005. Neonicotinoid Insecticide Toxicology: Mechanisms of Selective Action. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 45: 247-268.

Vennila S, Ramasundram P, Sheo R & Kairon MS. 2000. Cotton IPM and its current status. Central Institute for cotton Research Technical Bulletin, 8:1-13.

Wallner KB. 2009. Guttation: Tropfen, die es in sich haben. Deutsches Bienen- Journal, 4:18-19.

Zhang J, Percy RG & McCarty JCJ. 2014. Introgression genetics and breeding between upland and pima cotton: a review. Euphytica, 198: 1-12.




How to Cite

K Rolania, A Janu, S Ahlawat, & SS Yadav. (2023). Imidacloprid residues in cotton guttation fluid, pollen and soil when applied as seed dressings. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 15(15), 129–133.