Diversity, abundance and foraging behaviour of pollinators in early sown rapeseed-mustard genotypes


  • Poonam College of Agriculture
  • S Yadav College of Agriculture
  • MK Jat College of Agriculture
  • SS Yadav CCS Haryana Agricultural University
  • Harish Kumar College of Agriculture




Nectar, genotypes, honey bees, rapeseed-mustard


A study was carried out on the diversity, abundance and foraging behaviour of pollinators in early sown rapeseed-mustard genotypes through observing a total of 17 insect species visited flowers of early sown genotypes viz., 9 Hymenopterans, 3 Dipterans, 4 Lepidopterans, and 1 Coleopteran. The abundance (bees/m2/5 min) of A. florea was highest (8.5) followed by A. mellifera (3.9), A. dorsata (3.6) and A. cerana (3.1). The abundance of bee species was maximum (5.6 bees/m2/5 min) in genotypes TH 68 and SANGAM. A. cerana foraged a maximum number of flowers per minute (18.20) followed by A. dorsata (17.57), A. mellifera (17.32) and A. florea (6.45). The foraging rate (flowers/min) of all bee species was maximum (14.98 and 14.90) in genotypes TH 68 and SANGAM. Time spent per flower (sec) was maximum (5.3) by A. florea followed by A. dorsata (1.7), A. mellifera (1.6) and A. cerana indica (1.3). The maximum time spent per flower by all bee species (2.6) was in genotype PDZ 9. Nectar or pollen gatherers were maximum in A. dorsata (37.8% and 25.6%, respectively), while both nectar and pollen gatherers were maximum in A. cerana (45.3%). Nectar foraging, pollen foraging and both nectar and pollen foraging were maximum at peak flowering (36.0%), peak flowering (23.8%) and flowering cessation (42.9%), respectively. Out of the total foragers, top workers were maximum in A. dorsata (97.8%), while side workers were maximum in A. florea (41.0%).


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Poonam, College of Agriculture

Department of Entomology

S Yadav, College of Agriculture

Department of Entomology

MK Jat, College of Agriculture

Department of Entomology

SS Yadav, CCS Haryana Agricultural University

Assistant Director (PP), Directorate of Research

Harish Kumar, College of Agriculture

Department of Entomology


Abrol DP & Bajiya MP. 2017. Flower-visiting insect pollinators of mustard (Brassica napus) in Jammu Region. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6 (5): 2380-2386.

Ahmad SB, Dar SA & Pandith BA. 2017. Comparative foraging behaviour of honey bees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera on Apple bloom. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(1):474-482.

Akhtar T, Aziz MA, Naeem Md, Ahmed, MS & Bodlah I. 2018. Diversity and Relative Abundance of Pollinator Fauna of Canola (Brassica napus L. var. Chakwal Sarsoon) with Managed Apis mellifera L. in Pothwar Region, Gujar Khan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50(2): 567-573.

Atmowidi T, Buchori D, Manuwoto S, Suryobroto B & Hidayat P. 2007. Diversity of pollinator insects in relation to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa L., Cruciferae). HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 14 (4): 155-161.

Brar PK, Gatoria GS & Chhuneja PK. 2008. Studies on the foraging behaviour of Apis cerana (Fabricius) on radish (Raphanus sativus Linnaeus). Indian Bee Journal, 57:173-74.

Burkle L & Irwin R. 2009. Nectar sugar limits the larval growth of solitary bees (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Environmental Entomology, 38: 1293–1300.

Corbet SA. 1978. A Bee’s view of nectar. Bee World, 59: 25-32.

Dalio JS. 2018. Foraging Frequency of Apis species on bloom of Brassica napus L. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 7(2): 28-33.

Das R & Jha S. 2018. Record of insect pollinators and their abundance on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 6(5): 848-853.

Devi S, Sumit O & Singh Y. 2016. Abundance and foraging behaviour of major insect pollinators on seed crop of broccol (Brassica oleracea L. var. italic Plenck) LPH-1. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(3): 1493-1496.

Free JB & Fergusson AW. 1983. Foraging behaviour of honey bees on oilseed rape. Bee World, 64: 22-24.

Free JB. 1993. Insect Pollination of Crops, 2ndedn.Academic Press, London, UK. 684 p.

Giri SK, Chandra U, Singh G, Gautam MP & Jaiswal R. 2018. Study the abundance of insect pollinators/visitors in rapeseed-mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(2): 2563-2567.

Haldhar SM, Nidhi CN, Singh KI & Devi AS. 2021a. Honeybees diversity, pollination, entrepreneurship and beekeeping scenario in NEH region of India. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 12: 27-43.

Haldhar SM, Singh KI, Gupta MK & Devi AS. 2021b. Morphometric analysis on different species of honeybees in NEH region of India. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 12: 62-73.

Jat MK, Chaudhary OP, Kaushik HD, Jindal Y & Tetarwal AS. 2013. Diversity and abundance of different floral visitors on Egyptian clover, Trifolium alexandrinum L. Forage Research, 38 (4): 225-229.

Jat RS, Singh VV, Sharma P & Rai PK. 2019. Oilseed Brassica in India, demand, supply, policy perspective and future potential. Oilseeds & fats Crops and Lipids, 26:8.

Kakar KL. 1981. Foraging behaviour of insect pollinators of cauliflower bloom. Indian Journal of Ecology, 8(1): 126-130.

Kunjwal N, Kumar Y & Khan MS. 2014. Flower visiting insect pollinators of Brown mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss and their foraging behavior under caged and open pollination. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(16): 1278-1286.

Mandal E, Amin MR, Rahman H & Akanda AM. 2018. Abundance and foraging behavior of native insect pollinators and their effect on mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 46(2): 117-123.

Martin EC & McGregor SE. 1973. Changing trends in insect pollination of commercial crops. Annual Review of Entomology, 18: 207– 226.

Meena HS, Ram B, Kumar A, Singh BK, Meena PD, Singh VV & Singh D. 2014. Heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for seed yield and important traits in Brassica juncea. Journal of Oilseed Brassica, 5:134.

Nagpal K. 2016. Role of Apis spp. pollination in quality seed production of Indian mustard. M. Sc. Thesis submitted to Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana.

Nicolson SW. 2011. Bee Food: The chemistry and nutritional value of nectar, pollen and mixtures of the two. African Zoology, 46: 197-204.

Pandey A & Tripathi S. 2003. Foraging activity of honey bees in mustard. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences,11(2): 378.

Pudasaini R, Thapa RB, Chaudhary NK & Tiwari S. 2015. Insect pollinators' diversity of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris Var. Toria) in Chitwan, Nepal. Journal of Agricultura and Animal Science, 33 (34): 73-78.

Sharma SK, Singh JR & Mehla JC. 2001. Foraging behaviour of Apis spp. in semi arid sub tropical climate on flowers of mustard, onion, carrot, berseem and sunflower. Crop Research, 21 (3): 332-334.

Singh J, Mishra RC & Agarwal OP. 2005 Foraging activity of Apis species on parental lines of Brassica napus hybrid. Indian Bee Journal, 67 (1 & 2):15-19.

Singh KI, Haldhar SM and Maheshwari K. 2022. Scientific cares and management of Apis cerana Himalaya. Pub: College of Agriculture, CAU, Imphal pp-93; ISBN: 978-81-947184-6-8.

Srivastava K, Sharma D, Singh S & Ahmad H. 2017. Foraging behaviour of honeybees in seed production of Brassica oleracea var. Italica Plenck. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 46(2): 675-681.

Vishwakarma R & Chand P. 2017. Foraging activity of insect pollinators and their impact on the yield of Rapeseed-mustard. Bioinfolet, 14(3): 222-227.




How to Cite

Poonam, Yadav, S., Jat, M., Yadav, S., & Kumar, H. (2022). Diversity, abundance and foraging behaviour of pollinators in early sown rapeseed-mustard genotypes. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 14(14), 104–112. https://doi.org/10.58628/JAE-2214-215