Response of seed endophytic bacteria for the management of chickpea wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris
Keywords:Rolled towel method, Vascular wilts, Bacterial endophytes, Disease suppression
Vascular wilts are devastating plant diseases that can affect both annual crops as well as woody perennials, hence inducing major food losses and damaging valuable natural ecosystems. Because of ecological and economic reasons, the management of vascular wilt diseases by conventional chemical methods is raising concerns. More environmentally friendly alternatives such as the use of microbial antagonist to control phytopathogens are now of growing interest. The fact that bacterial endophytes are able to colonize an ecological niche similar to that of vascular wilt pathogens favours them as potential biocontrol agents against wilt diseases. Several possible disease suppression mechanisms of beneficial bacteria were proposed, among them induction of systemic resistance, growth promotion and competition. In this view, we studied out the seed endophytic bacteria (SEB) for the management of chickpea wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Among the treatment of seed entophytic bacterial isolate in SEB-5 was found highest germination percent (92% in JG 11), minimum mortality percent at pre and post–emergence (7.69 and 9.53% in JG 11 and JG 16, respectively). The minimum total mortality percent 17.82 % was found in JG 11 of SEB-5. The other seed entophytic bacterial isolate were found statistically at par with SEB-5. The minimum germination percent (78.5% in JG 62) as well as highest total mortality percent approximate 58% in JG 11 was found in T6 (treated control). Similarly, all the treatments of seed entophytic bacterial had higher root length and shoot length as compared to T6. Among the treatments the SEB-5 was found significantly highest by 23 cm in root length and 48 cm in shoot length as well as highest vigour index (6613) over the T6 in JG 11 variety. Among the varieties grown the JG 11 was perfumed better and found resistant and JG 62 was found susceptible to wilt. The treatment of seed endophytic bacterial isolate SEB-5, SEB-3, SEB-2, SEB-1 and SEB-4 was identified against wilt pathogen in reduce disease incidence, plant mortality and severity as well as promoting plant growth and health.
Anonymous. 2019. Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agri., Govt. of India. Pp-14 & 311.
Bergey DH. 1994. Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.pp-125.
Butler EJ. 1918. Fungi and Diseases in Plants. Culcutta, India: Thacker Spink and Co. 547 pp.
Egamberdieva D, Wirth S, Shurigin V, Hashem A & Abd-Allah EF. 2017. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth, symbiotic performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and induce suppression of root rot caused by Fusarium solani under salt stress. Front Microbiol. 8:75.
Gaur PM, Tripathi S, Gowda CL, Ranga Rao GV, Sharma HC, Pande S & Sharma M. 2010. Chickpea seed production manual.pp-147.
Haldhar SM and Maheshwari SK. 2018. Insect-pests management in arid and semi-arid horticultural crops. Technical Bulletin No: 64, ICAR-CIAH, Bikaner, pp 1-42.
Huisman J & Poel AFBV. 1994. Aspects of the nutritional quality and use of cool season food legumes in animal feed. p. 53-76.
Hulse JH. 1991. Nature, composition and utilization of grain legumes. p. 11-27. In: Uses of tropical Legumes: Proceedings of a Consultants' Meeting, 27-30 March 1989, ICRISAT Center. ICRISAT, Patancheru, A.P. 502- 324, India.
Kumari S & Khanna V. 2018. Biological management of vascular wilt of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris antagonistic rhizobacteria co- inoculated with native Mesorhizobium. International Journal current Microbiology Applied Science, 7 (1): 920-41.
Muehlbauer FJ & Kaiser WJ. 1994. Using host plant resistance to manage biotic stresses in cool season food legumes. In Expanding the production and use of cool season food legumes. pp. 233-246. Springer, Dordrecht.
Muthukumar A, Eswaran A & Sangeetha G. 2011. Induction of systemic resistance by mixtures of fungal and endophytic bacterial isolates against Pythium aphanidermatum. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33 (8): 1933–1944.
Nautiyal CS. 1997. Rhizosphere competence of Pseudomonas sp. NBRI9926 an Rhizobium sp. NBRI9513 involved in the suppression of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) pathogenic fungi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 23 (2): 145-158.
Nene YL, Sheila VK & Sharma SB. 1989. A world list of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) Millsp. pathogens. ICRISAT legumes pathology progress report vol. 7. p. 7, Patancheru, India.
Prasad N & Padwick GW. 1939. A species of Fusarium as a cause of wilt of gram (Cicer arietinum L.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9: 731-380.
Rangeshwaran R, Wasnikar AR, Prasad RD, Anjula N & Sunanda CR. 2002. Isolation of endophytic bacteria for biological control of wilt pathogens. Journal of Biological Control, 16 (2): 125-134.
Reddy A & Mishra D. 2010. Growth and Instability in chickpea production in India. pp., 256-266.
Reetha S, Bhuvaneswari G, Thamizhiniyan P & Mycin TR. 2014. Isolation of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing rhizobacteria of pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis and enhance growth of onion (Allium cepa L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3( 2): 568-574.
Saravanan S, Muthumanickam P, Saravanan TS & Santhaguru K. 2013. Antagonistic potential of Fluorescent Pseudomonas and its impact on growth of tomato challenged with phtopathogens. African Crop Science Journal, 21 (1): 29-36.
Singh SS. 1993. Crop management under irrigated and rainfed conditions. 2nd Ed. Kalyani Publisher pp., 147.
Stajkovic O, Delic D, Kuzmanovic D, Rasulic N & Vukcevic JK. 2011. Improvement of common bean growth by co- inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth- promoting bacteria. Romanian biotechnological Letters, 16(1): 5919- 5926.
Zhu YL, She XP, Wang JS & Lv HY. 2017. Endophytic Bacterial Effects On Seed Germination And Mobilization Of Reserves In Ammodendron Biofolium. Pakistan Journal Botany, 49 (5): 2029-2035.
Ruiza D, Agaras B, Werrab P, Wall LG & Valverde C. 2011. Response of seed endophytic bacteria for managing chickpea wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The Journal of Microbiology, 49 (6): 902-912.