Economic analysis of different rice cultivars against major biotic stresses


  • Pawan Kumar Kasniya Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Ropar
  • Dr. Mandeep Singh Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sangrur
  • A Singh Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Ropar



Biotic stresses, Benefit-cost, Cultivar, Rice, Severity


The on-farm trials during kharif 2017 and 2018 were conducted to study the prevalence of major biotic stresses and benefit-cost ratio on popularly grown rice cultivars. The results revealed that non-significant variations were noticed between cultivars on the incidence of leaf folder damage, BPH & WBPH populations and severity of sheath blight disease in the stipulated period. However, the variation observed in these biotic stresses is due to the maturity period of cultivars. The long-duration cultivars result in more shelter from insects and disease due to the dense crop canopy and take more days to maturity as compared to medium-short duration cultivars. It was also found that cultivating long-duration cultivars viz; Pusa 44 and Pili Pusa gave the highest yield with a low benefit-cost ratio as compared to medium-short duration cultivars like PR 121, PR 122, and PR 126. Our study concluded that the cultivation of medium-short duration cultivars is more profitable due to the low cost of production, less use of chemical inputs and lesser requirement of irrigation water.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Pawan Kumar Kasniya, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Ropar

Assistant Professor (Plant Pathology)

Dr. Mandeep Singh, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sangrur


A Singh, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Ropar



Anderson AP. 1899. A new Tilletia parasitic on Oryza sativa L. Botanical Gazette, 27: 467-472.

Anonymous. 2022. Package of Practices for crops of Punjab – Kharif 2022. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India, 39(1): 1-21.

Bag MK, Mukherjee AK, Sahoo RK & Jena M. 2016. Impact of false smut [Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke.) Tak.] disease on rice seed health. Indian Phytopathology, 69 (4S): 260-265.

Bagga PS & Kaur S. 2006. Evaluation of fungicides for controlling false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 59: 115-117.

Bhunkal N, Singh R & Mehta N. 2015. Assessment of losses and identification of slow blighting genotypes against sheath blight of rice. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 45: 285- 292.

Brooks SA, Anders MM & Yeater KM. 2009. Effect of cultural management practices on the severity of false smut and kernel smut of rice. Plant Disease, 93: 1202–1208.

Carris LM, Castlebury LA & Goates BJ. 2006. Non-systemic bunt fungi—Tilletia indica and T. horrida: a review of history, systematics, and biology. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 44: 113-133.

Chahal KS, Sokhi SS & Rattan GS. 2003. Investigations on sheath blight of rice in Punjab. Indian Phytopathology, 56: 22-26.

Cooke MC. 1878. Some extra–European fungi. Grevillea, 7: 13-15.

David IMM & Suresh S. 2019. Effect of difference sources and levels of lime application on yield, nutrient availability and uptake of rice in acidic soils. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 7: 73-87;

Dhaliwal GS, Jindal V & Dhawan AK. 2010. Insect pest problems and crop losses: changing trends. Indian Journal of Ecology, 37: 1-7.

Dodan DS & Singh SR. 1996. False smut of rice: Present status. Agriculture Review, 17: 227-240.

Duhan JC & Jakhar SS. 2000. Prevalence and incidence of bunt and false smut in paddy (Oryza sativa) seeds in Haryana. Seed Research, 2(28): 181-185.

Fan J, Yang J, Wang YQ, Li GB, Li Y & Huang F. 2016. Current understanding on Villosiclava virens, a unique flower infecting fungus causing rice false smut disease. Molecular Plant Pathology, 17: 1321-1330.

Gangopadhyay S & Chakrabarti NK. 1982. Sheath blight of rice. Annual Review of Plant Pathology, 61: 451-460.

Guo X, Li Y, Fan J, Li L, Huang F & Wang W. 2012. Progress in the study of false smut disease in rice. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A2: 1211-1217.

Huang SW, Wang L, Wang QY, Tang SQ, E-Zhi G & Wang L. 2007. Disease and insect pest resistance and agronomic traits of rice variety ZH 5 with sheath blight resistance. Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 21(6): 657-663.

IRRI 2002. Standard Evaluation System for Rice, 5th edn., Nov. 2002, INGER, Genetic Resources Center, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, 1099, Manila, Philippines, 56p.

Ladhalakshmi D, Laha GS, Singh R, Karthikeyan A, Mangrauthia SK, Sundaram R M, Thukkaiyannan P & Viraktamath BC. 2012. Isolation and characterization of Ustilaginoidea virens and survey of false smut disease of rice in India. Phytoparasitica, 40: 171-176.

Lee FN & Rush MC. 1983. Rice sheath blight: A major rice disease. Plant Disease, 67: 829-832.

Mandhare VK, Gawade SB, Game BC & Padule DN. 2008. Prevalence and incidence of bunt and false smut in paddy (Oryza sativa L.) seeds in Maharashtra. Agricultural Science Digest, 28: 292–294.

Pannu PPS, Thind TS & Goswami S. 2010. Standardization of technique for artificial creation of false smut of rice and its management. Indian Phytopathology, 63: 234–235.

Paracer CS & Chahal DS. 1963. Sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani. A new record in India. Current Science, 32: 320-329.

Park DS, Sayler RJ, Hong YG, Nam MH & Yang Y. 2008. A method for inoculation and evaluation of rice sheath blight disease. Plant Disease, 92: 25-29.

Premalatha Dath A. 1990. Sheath Blight of Rice and its Management. Associated Publishing Co., Shidipura, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, 129 p.

Sharma RC & Gill SS. 1997. Status of kernel smut of paddy in Punjab and its control. Seed Research, 25: 68-73.

Singh S, Kaur P, Vijay Kumar & Singh H. 2012. Incidence of insect pest damage in rice crop in relation to meteorological parameters in Punjab – A plant clinic data-based case study. Journal of Agrometeorology, 14(1): 50-53.

Singh SK, Shukla V, Singh H & Sinha AP. 2004. Current status and impact of sheath blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.) - A review. Agric Rev 25(4): 289-297.

Singh, R. Sunder S & Kumar P. 2016. Sheath blight of rice: Current status and perspectives. Indian Phytopathology, 69(4): 340-35.

Singh, RS. 1983. Plant Diseases (5th Edn.) Oxford of IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Sinha RKP, Sinha BBP & Singh AP. 2003. Assessment of yield loss due to false smut disease of rice. Journal of Applied Biology, 13: 35-37.

Takahashi Y. 1896. Ustilaginoidea virens Cooke and a new species of Tilletia parasitic on rice plant. The botanical magazine, 10: 16-20.

Tanaka E, Ashizawa T, Sonoda R & Tanaka C. 2008. Villosiclava virens gen. nov., comb. nov., teleomorph of Ustilaginoidea virens, the causal agent of rice false smut. Mycotaxon 106:, 491-501.

Thind TS, Singh PP, Mohan C & Vineet K. 2001. Diseases modeling. Available at

Tunwar, NS & Singh, SS. 1988. Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards. The Central Seed Certification Board, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India.

Zheng A, Lin R, Zhang D, Qin P, Xu L, Ai P, Ding L, Wang Y, Chen Y & Liu Y. 2013. The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen. Nature Communications, 4: 1424.




How to Cite

Kasniya, P., Singh, M., & Singh, A. (2022). Economic analysis of different rice cultivars against major biotic stresses. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 14(14), 146–152.