Induction of induced systemic resistance in capsicum chilli against Colletotrichum truncatum through fungal biocontrol agents
Keywords:Bioagents, induced resistance, defense related enzymes, phenols, peroxidise, polyphenol oxidase, chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase
To induce the systemic resistance in capsicum against Colletotrichum truncatum an experiment was conducted with two biocontrol agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma asperellum in pot culture. The induced resistance was monitored by increase in activities of five defense related enzymes viz., peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the accumulation of phenols and β -1,3-glucanase were also noticed in capsicum upon challenge inoculation with C. truncatum, the causal agent for anthracnose or fruit rot in capsicum. The activities of defense enzymes reached a peak at eight days after inoculation (DAI) with the pathogen. Native PAGE analysis revealed the expression of an additional isoforms of PO and PPO were observed in biocontrol agents treated seedlings due to induced systemic resistance (ISR) introduction. Prior treatment of capsicum seedlings with biocontrol agents triggered the plant defense mechanism in response to infection by C. capsici. Hence, it is speculated that among the various direct antagonistic tools, ISR is also the one indirect tool by which the tested biocontrol agents afforded resistance to capsicum against the pathogen.
Bradford MM. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analyt. Biochem., 72: 248- 254.
Cahill DM & McComb JA. 1992. A comparison of changes in PAL activity, lignin and phenolic synthesis in the roots of Eucalyptus caryophylla and E. marginata when infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Physiol. Mol. Pl. Pathol., 41: 307-316.
Dickerson DP, Pascholati SF, Hagerman AE, Butler LG & Niholson RL. 1984. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and hydroxyl cinnamate : CoA ligase in maize mesocotyls inoculated with Helminthosporium maydis or Helminthosporium carbonum. Physiol. Plant Pathol., 25: 111-123.
George R & Sujatha KB. 2019. Screening of chilli genotypes for drought tolerance. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 8: 38-45.
Hahlbrock K & Scheel D. 1989. Physiology and molecular biology of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 40: 347- 369.
Hammerschmidt R & Kuc JA. 1982. Lignification as a mechanism for induced systemic resistance in cucumber. Physiol. Plant Pathol., 20: 61-71.
Hammerschmidt R, Nuckles EM & Kuc J. 1982. Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber of Colletotrichum lagenarium. Physiol. Plant Pathol., 20: 73-82.
Hoffland E, Kakulinem J & Van Pelt JA. 1996. Comparison of systemic resistance induced by avirulent and non-pathogenic Pseudomonas species. Phytopathology, 86: 757-762.
Jayaraman KS, Ramanuja MN, Vijayaraghavan PK & Vaisyanathan CS. 1987. Oxidative enzyme in pearl millet. Food Chem., 24: 203.
Klessig DF & Malamy J. 1994. The salicylic acid signals in plants. Plant Mol. Biol., 26: 1439-1458.
Malamy J, Carr JP, Klersig DF & Raskin I. 1990. Salicylic acid: a likely endogenous signal in the resistance response of tobacco to viral infection. Science, 250: 1002-1004.
Manjunath H. 2009. Morphological and molecular characterization of Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides incitants of leaf blight and anthracnose diseases of noni and their management. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Massala R, Legrand M & Fritig B. 1980. Effect of amino oxyacetate, a competitive inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, on the hypersensitive resistance of tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus. Physiol. Plant Pathol., 16: 213-226.
Maurhofer M, Hase C, Meuwly P, Metraux JP & Defago G. 1994. Induction of systemic resistance of tabocco to Tabocco necrosis virus by the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHAO: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology, 84: 139- 146.
Mayer AM, Harel E & Shaul RB. 1965 Assay of catechol oxidase a critical comparison of methods. Phytochemistry, 5: 783-789.
Muthusamy SK, Sivalingam PN, Sridhar J, Singh D & Haldhar SM. 2017. Biotic stress inducible promoters in crop plants-a review. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 4: 14-24.
Nadlony L & Sequeira I. 1980. Increase in peroxidae activities are not directly involved in induced resistance in tobacco. Physiol. Plant Pathol., 16: 1-8.
Nandinidevi S. 2008. Studies on the foliar diseases of anthurium (Anthurium andreanum lind. Ex andre). M.Sc.(Agri.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Santhakumari P, Mary CA & Dhanya MK. 2001. Occurrence of rotting disease in anthurium. J. Tropical Agri., 39: 79.
Schoenbeck F. 1996. Induced resistance: mechanisms and evaluation. In: Lyr, H., Russel, P. and Sisler, H.D. (Eds.). modern fungicides and antifungal compounds. Andover, UK: Intercept Ltd., pp. 447-450.
VanLoon LC & Callow JA. 1983. Transcription and translation in the diseased plant. In: Biochemical Plant Pathology, Callow, J.A. (Eds.) John wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.
Vivekananthan R, Ravi M, Ramanathan A & Samiyappan R. 2004. Lytic enzymes induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and other biocontrol organisms mediate defense against the anthracnose pathogen in mango. World J. Microbiol. Biotech., 20: 235-244.
Vivekanathan R. 2003. Biotechnology based approaches for early detection and management of anthracnose disease of mango. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 204pp.
Wei G, Kloepper JW & Tuzun S. 1996. Induced systemic resistance to cucumber diseases and increased plant growth by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under field conditions. Phytopathology, 86: 221.
Xue L, Charest PM & Jabaji-Hare S. 1998. Systemic induction of peroxidases, -1, 3-glucanses, chitinases and resistance in bean plants by binucleate Rhizoctonia species. Phytopathology, 88: 359-365.
Zieslin N & Ben-Zaken R. 1993. Peroxidase activity and presence of phenolic substances in peduncles of rose flowers. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 31: 333-339.