Assessment of losses due to pulse beetle in chickpea under stored conditions in Southern Haryana
Keywords:Chickpea, bruchid, storage structures, losses, metal bins, earthen pots
The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the losses caused by pulse beetle (Callosobruchus spp.) during storage of chickpea grains in various storage structures. It was found that, still farmers are using traditional storage structures (earthen pots, earthen pots + sand, jute bags). Chickpea grain samples (500g each) were collected during August, September and October from different storage structures (metal bins, plastic bags, gunny bags, earthen pots and earthen pots + sand) in 15 villages of Rewari, Hisar and Mahendergarh district in the year 2017 and 2018. The results of analysed samples revealed that the highest infestation was observed in Rewari followed by Hisar and Mahendergarh district. It was found that maximum number of farmers were using metal bins (51.45, 40.11%) followed by gunny bugs (31.79, 31.64%), plastic bags (16.76, 15.82%), Earthen pots (6.51, 7.91%) and Earthen pots + sand (2.35, 4.52%) to store the chickpea grains in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Out of total samples infested with bruchid, 70.91 & 53.63 per cent gunny bag samples were found infested followed by plastic bags (48.28 & 20.29%), metal bins (11.24 & 15.94%) and earthen pots (9.80 & 10.14%) in both the years. There was no infestation of pulse beetle observed in those samples which were stored in earthen pots along with sand. Higher moisture percentage in the grain and infestation of pulse beetle was observed in the month of September followed by October in comparison to August month. Among the storage structures in frequent use, metal bins were found to have less qualitative and quantitative losses of seed/grains.
Anonymous (2011). Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, 2010-2011. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of. India, New Delhi.
Anonymous. 2012. Food and Agricultural Organization. Rome, Italy.
Anonymous. 2016. Pocket Book of Agricultural Statistics. New Delhi, Ministry of agriculture and farmers welfare, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, pp.154, India.
Anonymous. 2019. https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/10986. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International.
Arora GL. 1977. Taxonomy of the Bruchidae (Coleoptera) of Northwest India. Part I. Adults. Oriental insects, 11(sup7): 1-132.
Aslam M. 2004. Pest status of stored chickpea beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus on chickpea. Journal of Entomology, 1(1): 28-33.
Awaknavar JS, Krishnamurthy KC, Babu CK & Ramakumar MV. 1989. Different storage structures for safe storage of pulses. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23: 526- 532.
Bajiya RS. 2009. Bio-ecology and management of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) on mungbean, Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Rajasthan.
Bhargava MC & Choudhary RK. 2007. Grain interaction in stored products with relation to storage structures /receptacles used in different parts of Rajasthan. National Seminar Organic Waste Utilization and Ecofrindly Technologies for Crop Protection (Hyderabad), 147-149.
Caswell GH. 1973. The storage of cowpea. Samaru Agricultural Newsletter, Nigeria. 15: 20-73.
Chakraborty S & Mondal P. 2015. Studies on the biology of pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) infesting cowpea. International Journal of Current Research, 7(12): 23512-23515.
Chakraborty S & Mondal P. 2016. Effect of ambient environmental conditions on the level of infestation by pulse beetle on different legumes. International Journal of Current Research, 8(7): 33841-33846.
Chaturvedi SK & Ali M. 2000. Pulses: Poor man's meat needs fresh fillip. The Hindu, Survey of Indian Agriculture, 66.
Coolbear P. 1995. Mechanisms of seed deterioration. In: Basra, A.S. (Ed.), Seed quality. Basic mechanisms and agricultural implications. Food Product press, London, 223–277.
Deshpande VK, Makanur B, Deshpande SK, Adiger S & Salimath PM. 2011. Quantitative and qualitative losses caused by Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea during seed storage. Plant Archives, 11(2): 723-731.
Genchev D. 1997. The seed coat as factor for breaking of common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Bean Improvement Cooperative (USA).
Gujar T. 1978. Feeding of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) reared on different foods and temperatures. Journal of Stored Products Research, 22: 71-75.
Gupta HC. 1990. Use of non-insecticidal approaches in the management of pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) in stored pulses. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Rajasthan University, Jaipur, India.
Kharab SS. 1981. Insect species associated with stored bengalgram (Cicer arietinum) and losses caused by Callosobruchus chinensis in rural areas of Haryana. Ph.D. thesis submitted to CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana.
Kumar M, Kumar A, Kumar A & Kumari H. 2016. Evaluation of Farmers Saved Seed of Green Gram and Chickpea in Munger District of Bihar. International Journal of Bioresource and Stress Management, 7(4): 773-777.
Mookherjee PB, Jotwani MG, Yadav TD & Sircar P. 1970. Studies on incidence and extent of damage due to insect pests in stored seeds-II. Leguminous and vegetable seeds. Indian Journal of Entomology, 32(4): 350-355.
Patel GA. 1970. Incidence and extent of infestation of insects on stored food grains. Technical Bulletin No. 1, Department of Agricultural Gujarat State, Ahmedabad.
Ramasivan T, Krishnamurthy K & Pingale SV. 1968. Studies on preservation of food grains in rural storage. Part II. Storage of grains in villages near Hapur. Bulletin of Grain Technology, 6: 60-75.
Roberts EH. 1973. Predicting the storage life of seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 1: 499–514.
Shaheen FA, Khaliq A & Aslam M. 2006. Resistance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars against pulse beetle. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38(4): 1237.
Sharma R, Devi R, Kumar Sharma R & Singh M. 2013. Incidence and extent of damage due to insect pests of stored chickpea Cicer arietinum (L.) in Haryana State, India. Legume Research: An International Journal, 36(2): 142-146.
Sharma R, Devi R, Soni A, Sharma U, Yadav S, Sharma R & Kumar A. 2016. Growth and developmental responses of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on various pulses. Legume Research-An International Journal, 39(5): 840-843.
Singh A. 2020. Damage and weight loss due to Callosobruchus chinensis infestation in arhar and their effect on germination during storage of most susceptible months. Bulletin of Pure & Applied Sciences-Zoology, 39A (2): 495-502.
Southgate BJ. 1979. Biology of bruchidae. Annual Review of Entomology, 449 – 473.
Sujeetha AR, Girish AG, Sankarganesh E, Sridhar M, Ghosh SK, Hadapad AP & Venugopalan VP. 2020. Effect of gamma radiation on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (l.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with different storage conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India, 23 (1): 569-574.