Combining ability and gene action studies for horticultural traits in cowpea
Keywords:Combining ability, cowpea, gene action, horticultural traits, Vigna unguiculata
Identification of most suitable parents is one of the most important requirements in any crop improvement approach for development of elite lines/genotypes. The combining ability analysis helps to choose the best parents for crop improvement programmes for desirable traits. The attraction of combining ability is that it provides a reasonable basis for forecasting the performance of yet untested crosses but yet makes no assumptions genetically. This technique helps to choose the best hybrid combinations in terms of superiority over the parents and reveals the type of gene action associated in the inheritance of different characters. Therefore, combining ability study has been the most important and efficient tool for identifying the desirable parents for a crop improvement programme. The knowledge and information about the heritability of yield and its component traits in cowpea can be explored to develop high yielding cowpea varieties with wider adaptability as climate resilient approach to extenuate climate change through appropriate conventional and advance breeding methods. This review will be useful in understanding the opportunities offered by combining ability and gene action studies in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) for improving productivity and various horticultural traits.
Ayo-Vaughan MA, Johnson Ariyo O & Olusanya Alake C. 2013. Combining ability and genetic components for pod and seed traits in cowpea lines. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 8(2), e10.
Bala DR, Sridhar K, Kumar V, Kulkarni NS and Sahay G. 2018. Combining ability analysis to identify dual purpose genotypes in cowpea. Range Management and Agroforestry, 39(2): 175-181.
Balai RC, Meena LR & Sharma SC. 2017. Effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] under rainfed conditions of Rajasthan. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 3: 19-24.
Daniel OI & Joseph EA. 2013. Diallel analysis of six agronomic characters in vigna unguiculata genotypes. African Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(1): 001-007.
Dokashi MH & Mohamed MF. 2003. Genetic analysis of variability in earliness and yield among five local and exotic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) varieties. Assiut Journal of Agriculture Science, 34(5): 241-255.
Gopalan C, Rama Shastri BV & Bala Subramanian SC. 1982. Nutritive value of Indian Foods. ICMR, Natt. Inst. Nutrition, Hyderabad.
Gudadhe PS, Sawant SN, Jadhav SV, Nagre PK, Kale VS & Sawant BN. 2017. Combining ability studies in cowpea. International Journal of Chemical Studies 5(6):1432-1435.
Kalubowila I & Uma MS. 2006. Combining Ability Analysis Involving Land Races of Grain Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). M.Sc. Thesis, UAS, Dharwad, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
Kempthorne O. 1957. An introduction to genetic statistics. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Kumar S, Sridhar K, Kumar V & Kulkarni NS. 2017. Combining Ability Analysis in Dual Purpose Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp). Plant Archives, 17(2): 919-923.
Manggoel W, Uguru MI, Ndam ON & Dasbak MA. 2012. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of some yield components of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] accessions. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, 4(5): 80-86.
Okunlola OF. 2014. Combining Abilities and Heterotic Effect on Yield and Yield Related Components in Three Cowpea Crosses. Plant Breeding and Seed Technology, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta.
Owusu EW, Mohammed H, Manigben KA, Adjebeng-Danquah J, Kusi F, Karikari B & Sie EK. 2020. Diallel Analysis and Heritability of Grain Yield, Yield Components and Maturity Traits in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). The Scientific World Journal. Article ID 9390287, 9 pages, https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9390287.
Owusu EY, Amegbor IK, Darkwa K, Oteng-Frimpong R & Sie EF. 2018. Gene action and combining ability studies for grain yield and its related traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Cogent Food & Agriculture, 4: 1519973.
Pallavi Singh, YV, Verma, A & Bansala MK. 2018. Analysis of Combining Ability for Yield and its attributing Characters in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Pharma Innovation, 7(7): 202-204.
Patel NB, Desai RT, Patel BN & Koladiya PB. 2013. Combining Ability Study for Seed Yield in Cowpea [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp]. The Bioscan, 8(1): 139-142.
Patel SP, Dhedhi KK, Bharodia PS & Joshi AK. 2008. Genetic analysis of pod yield and its attributes in vegetable cowpea. Journal of Food Legumes, 21(2): 89-92.
Pethe UB, Dodiya NS, Bhave SG & Dalvi VV. 2018. Line x Tester Analysis for Combining Ability in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 7(01): 511-515.
Priya RD, Thangaraj K, Gnanamalar RP & Senthil N. 2018. Combining ability studies for grain yield and its component traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 9 (3): 941-947.
Samadia DK & Haldhar SM. 2019. Scope and strategies for genetic improvement in vegetable crop-plants under high temperature and abiotic stressed climate of Rajasthan: A gap analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 8: 1-18.
Selvakumar G, Anandakumar CR, Chinniah C. & Ushakumari R. 2014. Combining ability analysis in the inter sub specific crosses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) spp. sesquipedalis). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 5(2): 187-191.
Sharma D, Mehta N, Trivedi J & Gupta CR. 2011. Combining ability anatysis for green pod yield and its components in inter sub-species of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp. ssp. Vegetable Science, 38(2): 156-162.
Sharma D, Mehta N, Singh J & Gupta CR. 2013. Genetic study for some pod characters in vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Vegetable Science, 40(1): 73-76.
Shashibhushan D & Chaudhari FP. 2000. Selection of superior combiners in cowpea. Crop Research, 20(2): 268-273.
Singh I, Badaya SN & Tikka SBS. 2006. Combining ability for yield over environments in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Indian Journal of Crop Science, 1(1-2): 205-206.
Singh SP, Kumar R, Joshi AK & Singh B. 2004. Genetic architecture of yield traits in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Advances in Plant Sciences, 17(2): 495-502.
Steele WM. 1976. Cowpeas. In: Evolution of crop plants (Simmonds, N.W.) Ed. Longman, London pp.183-185.
Thiagarajan K & Rajasekaran S. 1989. Genotypes x environment interaction for grain yield in cowpea. Madras Agriculture Journal, 74: 15-17.
Thiagarajan K & Natarajan C. 1989. Genetic divergence in cowpea. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, 2-3.
Noubissie TJB, Bell JM, Ngakeu FD, Njintang YN & Youmbi E. 2011. Diallel analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) for some physical properties of seed under the Sudano-guinean conditions. Agriculture & Biology Journal of North America, 2(4): 698-707.
Ushakumari R, Vairam N, Anandakumar CR & Malini N. 2010. Studies on hybrid vigour and combining ability for seed yield and contributing characters in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(4): 940-947.
Valarmathi G, Surendran C & Muthaih AR. 2007. Studies on combining ability for yield and yield traits in inter subspecies crosses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis). Legume Research, 30(3): 173-179.
Vavilov NI. 1939. Chromosome Atlas of cultivated plants. George Allen Unwin Ltd., London.
Verma AK, Mehta AK, Sharma D & Singh RP. 2019. Genetic analysis of pod yield and its contributing traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). International Journal of Chemical Studies, 8(1): 965-970.
Wankhade MP & Manjare MR. 2016. Combining ability and gene action studies in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Vegetable Science, 43(2) 198-201.