Importance of quinoa and amaranth in food security

  • S Chandra
  • P Dwivedi
  • MMV Baig
  • LP Shinde

Abstract

As a result of increasing population in the India and world, food security has become increasingly dependent on only a few crops with high demanding plant species. The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and amaranth ( Amaranthus spp. ) are peculiar composition with high nutritional value and rich source of macronutrients and energy. These are called pseudocereals and provide good quality of protein, dietary fiber and lipids rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Amaranth and quinoa are gluten-free grains, having adequate levels of minerals, vitamins, and other bioactive components. Quinoa and amaranth is suitable for diverse consumers groups such as the elderly, children, high-performance athletes, diabetics, celiacs, and gluten or lactose intolerant people. Due to their composition and nutritional facts described for prospective for functional properties such as food supplements or common cereal replacers for human health. A review of the main aspects of amaranth and quinoa as alternative source of nutrient rich gluten free grains which have potential to alleviate hunger and provide food security to the Indian  population. It is to be emphasized on the application of the amaranth and quinoa in the value added food for various segments of population; it will also create awareness to the farmers to grow these grains for better earning and livelihood.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahamed NT, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR & Pal M. 1996. Physicochemical and functional properties of Chenopodium quinoa starch. Carbohydrate polymers, 31: 99-103.
Alvarez-Jubete L, Arendt EK & Gallagher E. 2009. Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60: 240-257.
Alvarez-Jubete L, Auty M Arendt EK & Gallagher E. 2010. Baking properties and microstructure of pseudocereal flours in gluten-free formulations. European Food Research and Technology, 230: 437-445.
Becker R, Wheeler E L, Lorenz K, Stafford AE, Grosjean OK, Betschart AA & Saunders RM. 1981. A compositional study of amaranth grain. Journal Food Science, 46: 1175-1180.
Berghofer E & Schoenlechner R. 2002. Grain Amaranth. In: Belton P, Taylor J (eds), Pseudocereals and less common cereals, grain properties and utilization potential. Springer- Verlag, pp.219-60.
Berti C, Riso P, Monti L & Porrini M. 2004. In vitro starch digestibility and in vitro glucose response of gluten-free foods and their gluten counterparts. European Journal of Nutrition, 43: 198-204.
Brady K, Ho CT, Rosen RT, Sang S & Karwe MV. 2007. Effects of processing on the nutraceutical profile of quinoa. J food chem 100:1209-1216.
Bressani R. 2003. Amaranth. In B. Caballero (ed.), Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition. Oxford: Academic Press, pp.166-173.
Bruni R, Medici A, Guerrini A, Scalia S, Poli F, Muzzoli M & Sacchetti G. 2001. Wild Amaranthus caudatus seed oil, a nutraceutical resource from Ecuadorian flora. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49: 5455-5460.
Caperuto L, Amaya-Farfan J & Camargo C. 2000. Performance of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) flour in the manufacture of gluten-free spaghetti. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81: 95-101.
Catassi C & Fasano A. 2008. nutritive value of pseudocereals and their increasing use as functional gluten free ingredients. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 21:106-113.
Chauhan GS, Zillman RR & Eskin NAM. 1992. Dough mixing and breadmaking properties of quinoa-wheat flour blends. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 27: 701-705.
Choi H, Kim W & Shin M. 2004. Properties of Korean amaranth starch compared to waxy millet and waxy sorghum starches. Starch/Starke, 56: 469-477.
Copeland L. 2009. Structural characterization of wheat starch granules differing in amylase content and functional characteristics. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75: 705-711.
Danz RA & Lupton JR.1992. Physiological effects of dietary amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) on rats. Cereal Food World, 37: 489-494.
Dodok L, Modhir AA, Buchtova V, Halasova, G, Polacek I. 1997. Importance and utilization of amaranth in food industry. Part 2. Composition of amino acids and fatty acids. Nahrung, 41: 108-110.
Drzewiecki J, delgado-licon E, haruenkit R, pawelzik E, Martin-Belloso O & Park YS. 2003. Identification and differences of total proteins and their soluble fractions in some pseudocereals based on electrophoretic patterns. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, 51:7798-7804.
Early DK. 1990. Amaranth production in Mexico and Peru. In Janick and J.E. Simon (eds), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR. pp.140-142,
Gamel TH, Linssen JP, Alink GM, Mossallem AS & Shekib LA. 2004. Nutritional study of raw and popped seed proteins of Amaranthus caudatus L and Amaranthus cruentus L. Journal Science and Food Agriculture, 84: 1153-1158.
Gorinstein S, Medina-Vargas O, Jaramillo N, Arnao Salas I, Martinez Ayala A, Arancibia-Avila P, Toledo F, Katrich E & Trakhtenberg S. 2007. The total polyphenols and the antioxidant potentials of some selected cereals and pseudocereals. European Food Research and Technology, 225: 321-328.
Gorinstein S, Pawelzik E, Delgado-Licon E, Haruenkit R, Weisz M, Trakhtenberg S. 2002. Characterisation of pseudocereal and cereal proteins by protein and amino acid analyses. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 886-891.
Grobelnik MS, Turinek M, Jakop M, Bavec M & Bavec F. 2009. Nutrition value and use of grain amaranth: potential future application in bread making. Agricultura, 6: 43-53,
Gross R, Koch F, Malaga I, Miranda AF, Schoeneberger H & Trugo LC. 1989. Chemical composition and protein quality of some local Andean food sources. Food Chemistry, 34: 25-34.
Hopman EG, Le Cessie S, Von Blomberg ME & Mearin ML. 2006. Nutritional management of the gluten- free diet in young people with celiac disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology Nutrition, 43:102-108.
Jancurova M, Minarovicova L, Dandar A. 2009. Rheological properties of doughs with buckwheat and quinoa additives. Chemical Papers, 63:738-741.
Koziol MJ. 1992. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Journal of Food Composition Analysis, 5: 35-68.
Lorenz K, Coulter L. 1991. Quinoa flour in baked products. Plan Foods for Human Nutrition, 41: 213-223.
Prego I, Maldonado S & Otegui M. 1998. Seed structure and localization of reserves in Chenopodium quinoa. Annals of Botany, 82: 481-488.
Repo-Carrasco R, Espinoza C & Jacobsen S. 2003. Nutritional value and use of the Andean crops quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and kan˜iwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Food Revolution International, 19: 179-189.
Rosell CM, Cortez G, Repo-Carrasco R. 2009. Breadmaking use of the Andean crops quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus), and tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis). Cereal Chemeistry, 86: 386-392.
Ruales J & Nair BM. 1992. Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) seeds. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 42:1-12.
Salas AGV. 2011. Development of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) based products with functional characteristic. 106 p. Master Science Thesis – Pharmaceutical Sciences School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-Brazil (Advisor: Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes).
Samadia DK & Haldhar SM. 2017. Breeding strategies and scope of improvement in arid zone fruit crop-plants under abiotic stressed agro-climate: an analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 4: 1-13.
Schoenlechner R, Drausinger J, Ottenschlaeger V, Jurackova K & Berghofer E. 2010. Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, .65: 339-349.
Schoenlechner R, Siebenhandl S, Berghofer E. 2008. Pseudocereals. In: Arendt, E.K., Bello, F.D. editors. Gluten-free cereal products and beverages. Academic Press. Chapter 7. pp. 149-190.
Sindhuja A, Sudha ML & Rahim A. 2005. Effect of incorporation of amaranth flour on the quality of cookies. European Food Research and Technology, 221: 597-601.
Sood Ajit, Midha V, Sood N, Avasthi G & Sehgal A. 2006. prevalence of celiac disease among school children in punjab, north India. Journal of Gastrology & Hepatology, 21: 1622-1625.
Taylor J R N, Parker M L. 2002. Quinoa. In P. S. Belton, and J. R. N. Taylor (eds.), Pseudocereals and less common cereals: Grain properties and utilization. Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 93-122.
Tosi EA, Ciappini MC & Mascarelli R. 1996. Utilización de la harina integral de amaranto (Amaranthus Cruentus) In: La Fabricación de galletas para celíacos. Alimentaria, pp.49-55.
Tosi EA, Re ED, MasciarelliR, Sanchez H, Osella C & de La Torre MA. 2002. Flour tested as wheat flour supplementation in mold breads. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 35: 472-475.
Valencia-Chamorro SA. 2008. Quinoa. In: Caballero B. Encyclopedia of Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 8. Academic Press, Masterdam. pp.4895-4902.
Yamani BV & Lannes SCS. 2012. Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp.) and their influence in the nutritional value of cereal based foods. Food and Public Health, 2: 265-275.
Zevallos VF, Herencia LI, Chang F, Donnelly S, Ellis HJ & Ciclitira PJ. 2014. Gastrointestinal effects of eating quinoa (chenopodium quinoa wild) in celiac patients. The American Journal of Gastrology, 109: 270-278.
Published
2018-06-15
How to Cite
CHANDRA, S et al. Importance of quinoa and amaranth in food security. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, [S.l.], v. 5, p. 26-37, june 2018. ISSN 2456-9410. Available at: <https://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/100>. Date accessed: 01 aug. 2021.
Keywords
Pseudocereals, gluten free grains, food security, value added food