Mateera, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) germplasm utilization for improving fruit quality and marketable harvest under hot arid climate of India: approaches and out-put

  • D K Samadia
  • SM Haldhar

Abstract

Cucurbits, a big group of vegetable cultivated extensively in India. It consist wide-range of crops used in culinary, salad, dessert, pickling and processing. Indigenous cucurbits both fresh and dehydrated form ensuring nutritious food to inhabitants of tribal and desert areas. Kachri, kaakdia, mateera, tinda and tumba is grown under rainfed situations and its cultivation is admired with the traditional farming in north-western parts of Rajasthan. Mateera is under-utilized, drought tolerant and native form of watermelon. Its nutrition rich tender and ripen fruits and seed-kernel liked by desert dwellers and sold at high premium. For developing drought and heat tolerant genotypes in mateera, ICAR-CIAH initiated first-time intensive research and wide range of Citrullus germplasm collected, conserved and utilized in crop improvement work from 1994 to 2012. In past, absence of standard varieties in drought tolerant mateera, the arid zone farmers obliged to use heterozygous seed collected from fruits (based on taste) of own fields. This obviously results poor and no-insured quality. On evaluation of the Citrullus germplasm (254 entries) at Bikaner, watermelon genotypes failed to express their potentialities under high temperature and rainfed conditions. Therefore, use of indigenous and generated variability, and promotion of varieties from native germplasm is found to be beneficial. Mateera line AHW-18, AHW-19, AHW-65, AHW-108, AHW-140, AHW-RSS-1 and AHW-BSM-1 are promising for use in breeding or trait-specific selections. The developed mateera varieties i.e. AHW-19 and Thar Manak are early in harvesting, producing better quality fruits and multiple-use, and recommended for cultivation under resource constraints hot arid environment.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Anonymous. 1994–2019. Annual reports. National Research Centre for Arid Horticulture / Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (ICAR), Bikaner (Rajasthan) India.
Anonymous. 2005. Final report - NATP on sustainable management of plant bio-diversity - Collection, evaluation and maintenance of arid horticultural crops. Co-operating centre of NBPGR, Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (ICAR), Bikaner (Rajasthan) India.
Choudhary BR, Haldhar SM, Maheshwari SK, Bhargava R & Sharma SK. 2015. Phytochemicals and antioxidants in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) genotypes under hot arid region. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 85 (3): 414–417.
Dwivedi NK, Bhandari DC, Bhatnagar N & Samadia DK. 2003. Diversity of kachri and mateera in arid region of Rajasthan. In: Human impact on desert environment (eds. Naraian, Pratap, S. Kathju, Amar Kar, M. P. Singh and Praveen Kumar). Arid Zone Research Association of India and Scientific Publishers (India) Jodhpur (India). pp478–482.
Haldhar SM, Choudhary BR & Bhargava R. 2016. Susceptibility of watermelon genotypes to fruit fly bactrocera cucurbitae (coquillett). Indian Journal of Entomology, 78(2): 170-173.
Haldhar SM, Choudhary BR, Bhargava R & Meena SR. 2015. Antixenotic and allelochemical resistance traits of watermelon against Bactrocera cucurbitae in a hot arid region of India. Florida Entomologist, 98(3): 827-834.
Pareek OP & Samadia DK. 1999. Watermelon (mateera) varieties developed by NRCAH. ICAR NEWS, 5 (2): 14-15.
Pareek OP, Vashishtha BB & Samadia DK. 1999. Genetic diversity in drought hardy cucurbits from hot arid zone of India. IPGRI-APO Regional Newsletter for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania, 28: 22-23.
Pareek OP, Vashishtha BB, Vishalnath, Samadia DK & Singh RS. 1999. Horticultural resources in Thar dessert. In: Natural resources in Rajasthan (eds. Anil Kumar, Rajesh Sharma and Madhu Sharma), SKRAU, Bikaner. pp4-9.
Pareek, O.P. and Samadia, D.K. (2002). Promising indigenous cucurbit varieties. Indian Horticulture, 47 (2): 15-18.
Samadia DK & Haldhar SM. 2017. Breeding strategies and scope of improvement in arid zone fruit crop-plant under abiotic stressed agro-climate: an analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 4: 1–13.
Samadia DK & Haldhar SM. 2019. Scope and strategies for genetic improvement in vegetable crop-plants under high temperature and abiotic stressed climate of Rajasthan: A gap analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 8: 1–18.
Samadia DK & Pareek OP. 1996. Variability in drought hardy watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) type mateera in arid eco-system. Abstract of paper In: Second International Crop Science Congress. November 17-24, 1996. New Delhi. P9-015:p278.
Samadia DK & Pareek OP. 1998. Genetic diversity in watermelon type “Mateera” (Citrullus lanatus) in hot arid environment. Abstract of paper In: XVIIIth International Congress of Genetics. August 10-15, 1998. Beijing, China. 8P64:p147.
Samadia DK & Pareek OP. 2001. AHW-19 and AHW-65: New mateera varieties. Indian Horticulture, 46 (2): 8-9 & 21.
Samadia DK and More TA. 2011. Thar Manak to quench thirst in desert. Indian Horticulture, 56 (5): 14–15.
Samadia DK, Nallathambi P, Vashishtha BB & Dhandar DG. 2002. Quality improvement in drought hardy mateera (Citrullus lanatus) under hot arid conditions. Abstract of paper In: International Conference on Vegetables. November 10-14, 2002. Bangalore, India. II-86P:pp84-85.
Samadia DK, Pareek OP & Vashishtha, BB. 2000. AHW-19 and AHW-65: Watermelon type mateera selections for the hot arid eco-system. Abstract of paper In: Third International Crop Science Congress-2000, August 17-22, 2000. Hamburg, Germany.
Samadia DK. 2003. Genetic resource management for sustainable horticultural development in arid regions of India. In: Sustainable Resource Management (eds. B.B.S. Kapoor and Ali Ahemad), Madhu Publications, Bikaner (India). pp163-173.
Samadia DK. 2006. Mateera. In: Prospects and dimension for utilization of arid foods (eds. Goyal, M. and S.K. Sharma), Yash Publishing House, Bikaner. pp79-83.
Samadia DK. 2007. Arid Vegetables. In: Underutilized and under exploited horticultural crops. Peter, K.V. (ed.), Vol. 2 New India publishing agency, New Delhi (India), pp153-174.
Samadia DK. 2007. Studies on genetic variability and scope of improvement in round melon under hot arid conditions. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 64 (1): 58-62.
Samadia DK. 2014. Mateera: Research and development in arid region (Hindi), Technical bulletin - 45, ICAR-CIAH, Bikaner. 44p.
Samadia DK. 2015. Mateera – Thar Manak: Grow with innovative technological advancement. Technical Folder, CIAH, Bikaner, 6p.
Samadia DK. 2016. Horticulture based crop production site management approach (HBCPSMA) - an innovative concept for doubling farm income under dry-lands. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 1: 1–9.
Samadia DK. 2018. Cultivating underutilized vegetables in arid region. Indian Horticulture, 63 (4): 34-39.
Published
2020-12-31
How to Cite
SAMADIA, D K; HALDHAR, SM. Mateera, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) germplasm utilization for improving fruit quality and marketable harvest under hot arid climate of India: approaches and out-put. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, [S.l.], v. 10, p. 1-21, dec. 2020. ISSN 2456-9410. Available at: <http://journals.saaer.org.in/index.php/jae/article/view/330>. Date accessed: 18 may 2021.
Keywords
Citrullus, mateera, watermelon, tumba, tinda, drought tolerant germplasm, crop improvement, hot arid environment

Most read articles by the same author(s)