Screening of chilli genotypes for drought tolerance
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important solanaceous crop highly susceptible to drought due its higher transpiring leaf surface, high stomatal conductance and low membrane integrity. The pot culture experiment to screen the 12 chilli genotypes for drought tolerance was conducted with two treatments with 100 % field capacity as control and 50 % field capacity as drought and screening was done on the basis of various parameters. The overall results revealed that the tolerant genotypes maintained higher level of cell membrane integrity, chlorophyll stability, osmolyte accumulation and low lipid peroxidation under drought. Among the genotypes, CA 176 showed its supremacy by maintaining higher chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane integrity and lower lipid peroxidation followed by CA 183 in its performance under drought. On the other hand CA 45, CA 104 and CA 174 showed poor performance by being very sensitive to water stress with very low yield.
Antony E & Singandhupe R. 2004. Impact of drip and surface irrigation on growth, yield and WUE of capsicum. Agricultural Water Management, 65(2):121-132.
Barrs H & Weatherley P. 1962. A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Austalian Journal of Biological Sciences, 15(3): 413-428.
Bates L, Waldren R & Teare I. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39(1): 205-207.
Blokhina O. 2003. Antioxidants, Oxidative Damage and Oxygen Deprivation Stress: a Review. Annals of Botany, 91(2) : 179-194.
Chaturvedi AK, Mishra A, Tiwari V & Jha B. 2012. Cloning and transcript analysis of type 2 metallothionein gene (SbMT-2) from extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and its heterologous expression in E. coli. Gene, 499(2): 280-287.
Correia MJ, Fonseca F, Azedo‐Silva J, Dias C, David M, Barrote I&Osório J. 2005. Effects of water deficit on the activity of nitrate reductase and content of sugars, nitrate and free amino acids in the leaves and roots of sunflower and white lupin plants growing under two nutrient supply regimes. Physiologia Plantarum,124(1): 61-70.
Demmig‐Adams B, Adams IW, Barker DH, Logan BA, Bowling DR & Verhoeven AS. 1996. Using chlorophyll fluorescence to assess the fraction of absorbed light allocated to thermal dissipation of excess excitation. Physiologia Plantarum,98(2):253-264.
Gladden LA, Wang YM, Hsieh CH & Tsou I. 2012. Using deficit irrigation approach for evaluating the effects of water restriction on field grown tomato. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(14):2083-2095.
GomezKA & Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research.New York, Wiley Inter-Science Publications. p. 253-259.
Gupta N, Gupta S & Kumar A. 2000. Exogenous cytokinin application increases cell membrane and chlorophyll stability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Cereal Research Communications, p. 287-291.
Haldhar SM, Berwal MK, Samadia DK, Kumar R, Gora JS & Choudhary S. 2018. Biochemical basis of plant-insect interaction in arid horticulture crops: a scientific review. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 6: 1-16.
Hassanzadeh M, Ebadi A, Panahyan-E-Kivi M, Eshghi A, Jamaati-E-Somarin S, Saeidi M& Zabihi-E-Mahmoodabad, R. 2009. Evaluation of drought stress on relative water content and chlorophyll content of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes at early flowering stage. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(3):345-350.
Hazrati S, Tahmasebi-Sarvestani Z, Modarres-Sanavy SM, Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A & Nicola S. 2016. Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 106:141-148.
Heath RL & Packer L. 1968. Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: II. Role of electron transfer. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125(3) : 850-857.
Hiscox JT& Israelstam G. 1979. A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57(12): 1332-1334.
Leopold AC, Musgrave ME & Williams KM. 1981. Solute leakage resulting from leaf desiccation. Plant Physiology, 68(6): 1222-1225.
Moller IM, Jensen PE &Hansson A. 2007. Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 58: 459-481.
Sairam R, Deshmukh P & Shukla D. 1997. Tolerance of drought and temperature stress in relation to increased antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat.Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 178(3):171-178.
Samadia DK & Haldhar SM. 2017. Breeding strategies and scope of improvement in arid zone fruit crop-plants under abiotic stressed agro-climate: an analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 4: 1-13.
Singh SK & Raja Reddy K. 2011. Regulation of photosynthesis, fluorescence, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under drought. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, 105(1): 40-50.
Sivakumar R, Durga Devi D, Chandrasekar CN, Santhi R &Vijayakumar RM. 2014. Impact of drought on gas exchange and physiological parameters and yield in contrasting genotypes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(1): 1-7.
Umebese C, Olatimilehin T &Ogunsusi T. 2009. Salicylic acid protects nitrate reductase activity, growth and proline in amaranth and tomato plants during water deficit.American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 4(3) : 224-229.